object(SmartyCompilerException)#313 (10) { ["line"]=> int(34) ["source"]=> string(40) "

{$c.firstName $c.lastName}

" ["desc"]=> string(29) "too many shorthand attributes" ["template"]=> string(81) "/home/miningli/sawtech/applications/modules/default/views/templates/news/view.tpl" ["message":protected]=> string(198) "Syntax error in template "file:/home/miningli/sawtech/applications/modules/default/views/templates/news/view.tpl" on line 34 "

{$c.firstName $c.lastName}

" too many shorthand attributes" ["string":"Exception":private]=> string(0) "" ["code":protected]=> int(0) ["file":protected]=> string(86) "/home/miningli/sawtech/libs/Smarty/sysplugins/smarty_internal_templatecompilerbase.php" ["trace":"Exception":private]=> array(23) { [0]=> array(6) { ["file"]=> string(77) "/home/miningli/sawtech/libs/Smarty/sysplugins/smarty_internal_compilebase.php" ["line"]=> int(90) ["function"]=> string(22) "trigger_template_error" ["class"]=> string(36) "Smarty_Internal_TemplateCompilerBase" ["type"]=> string(2) "->" ["args"]=> array(3) { [0]=> string(29) "too many shorthand attributes" [1]=> int(34) [2]=> bool(true) } } [1]=> array(6) { ["file"]=> string(98) "/home/miningli/sawtech/libs/Smarty/sysplugins/smarty_internal_compile_private_print_expression.php" ["line"]=> int(48) ["function"]=> string(13) "getAttributes" ["class"]=> string(27) "Smarty_Internal_CompileBase" ["type"]=> string(2) "->" ["args"]=> array(2) { [0]=> object(Smarty_Internal_SmartyTemplateCompiler)#234 (52) { ["lexer_class"]=> string(29) "Smarty_Internal_Templatelexer" ["parser_class"]=> string(30) "Smarty_Internal_Templateparser" ["local_var"]=> array(0) { } ["postCompileCallbacks"]=> array(0) { } ["prefixCompiledCode"]=> string(0) "" ["postfixCompiledCode"]=> string(0) "" ["smarty"]=> object(Smarty)#166 (76) { ["auto_literal"]=> bool(true) ["error_unassigned"]=> bool(false) ["use_include_path"]=> bool(false) ["_templateDirNormalized"]=> bool(false) ["_joined_template_dir"]=> string(68) "/home/miningli/sawtech/applications/modules/default/views/templates/" ["_configDirNormalized"]=> bool(false) ["_joined_config_dir"]=> NULL ["default_template_handler_func"]=> NULL ["default_config_handler_func"]=> NULL ["default_plugin_handler_func"]=> NULL ["_compileDirNormalized"]=> bool(true) ["_pluginsDirNormalized"]=> bool(true) ["_cacheDirNormalized"]=> bool(false) ["force_compile"]=> bool(true) ["use_sub_dirs"]=> bool(false) ["allow_ambiguous_resources"]=> bool(false) ["merge_compiled_includes"]=> bool(false) ["extends_recursion"]=> bool(true) ["force_cache"]=> bool(false) ["left_delimiter"]=> string(1) "{" ["right_delimiter"]=> string(1) "}" ["literals"]=> array(0) { } ["security_class"]=> string(15) "Smarty_Security" ["security_policy"]=> NULL ["php_handling"]=> int(0) ["allow_php_templates"]=> bool(false) ["debugging"]=> bool(false) ["debugging_ctrl"]=> string(4) "NONE" ["smarty_debug_id"]=> string(12) "SMARTY_DEBUG" ["debug_tpl"]=> NULL ["error_reporting"]=> NULL ["config_overwrite"]=> bool(true) ["config_booleanize"]=> bool(true) ["config_read_hidden"]=> bool(false) ["compile_locking"]=> bool(true) ["cache_locking"]=> bool(false) ["locking_timeout"]=> int(10) ["default_resource_type"]=> string(4) "file" ["caching_type"]=> string(4) "file" ["default_config_type"]=> string(4) "file" ["cache_modified_check"]=> bool(false) ["registered_plugins"]=> array(0) { } ["registered_objects"]=> array(0) { } ["registered_classes"]=> array(0) { } ["registered_filters"]=> array(0) { } ["registered_resources"]=> array(0) { } ["registered_cache_resources"]=> array(0) { } ["autoload_filters"]=> array(0) { } ["default_modifiers"]=> array(0) { } ["escape_html"]=> bool(false) ["start_time"]=> float(1539730000.3162) ["_current_file"]=> string(81) "/home/miningli/sawtech/applications/modules/default/views/templates/news/view.tpl" ["_parserdebug"]=> bool(false) ["_objType"]=> int(1) ["_debug"]=> NULL ["template_dir":protected]=> array(1) { [0]=> string(80) "/home/miningli/sawtech/settings/../applications/modules/default/views/templates/" } ["_processedTemplateDir":protected]=> array(0) { } ["config_dir":protected]=> array(1) { [0]=> string(10) "./configs/" } ["_processedConfigDir":protected]=> array(0) { } ["compile_dir":protected]=> string(41) "/home/miningli/sawtech/cache/templates_c/" ["plugins_dir":protected]=> array(1) { [0]=> string(43) "/home/miningli/sawtech/libs/Smarty/plugins/" } ["cache_dir":protected]=> string(8) "./cache/" ["obsoleteProperties":protected]=> array(8) { [0]=> string(16) "resource_caching" [1]=> string(25) "template_resource_caching" [2]=> string(22) "direct_access_security" [3]=> string(10) "_dir_perms" [4]=> string(11) "_file_perms" [5]=> string(19) "plugin_search_order" [6]=> string(35) "inheritance_merge_compiled_includes" [7]=> string(19) "resource_cache_mode" } ["accessMap":protected]=> array(5) { ["template_dir"]=> string(11) "TemplateDir" ["config_dir"]=> string(9) "ConfigDir" ["plugins_dir"]=> string(10) "PluginsDir" ["compile_dir"]=> string(10) "CompileDir" ["cache_dir"]=> string(8) "CacheDir" } ["cache_id"]=> NULL ["compile_id"]=> NULL ["caching"]=> bool(false) ["compile_check"]=> bool(true) ["cache_lifetime"]=> int(0) ["tplFunctions"]=> array(0) { } ["_cache"]=> array(2) { ["resource_handlers"]=> array(1) { ["file"]=> object(Smarty_Internal_Resource_File)#221 (3) { ["uncompiled"]=> bool(false) ["recompiled"]=> bool(false) ["hasCompiledHandler"]=> bool(false) } } ["plugin_files"]=> array(0) { } } ["template_class"]=> string(24) "Smarty_Internal_Template" ["tpl_vars"]=> array(29) { ["rootPath"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#304 (2) { ["value"]=> string(27) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/" ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["baseTitle"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#305 (2) { ["value"]=> NULL ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["arenasMenu"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#256 (2) { ["value"]=> array(2) { [0]=> array(39) { ["arenaId"]=> int(56) ["title"]=> string(13) "Indoor Arena " ["eventId"]=> int(14) ["description"]=> string(16) "

test

" ["pricePerSq"]=> float(13.8) ["arenaType"]=> string(6) "upload" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "s5k2Dshr.jpg" ["imageMobile"]=> string(12) "zJf0so5b.jpg" ["imageMedium"]=> string(12) "40lFdOne.jpg" ["spotIntersection"]=> int(0) ["widthPx"]=> float(700) ["lengthPx"]=> float(906) ["widthFt"]=> float(84) ["lengthFt"]=> float(200) ["paddingTop"]=> int(0) ["paddingRight"]=> int(0) ["paddingBottom"]=> int(0) ["paddingLeft"]=> int(0) ["sampleWidthPx"]=> float(26) ["sampleLengthPx"]=> float(28) ["sampleWidthFt"]=> float(84) ["sampleLengthFt"]=> float(200) ["sampleX"]=> float(134) ["sampleY"]=> float(78.5) ["minWidthPx"]=> float(1.66533279957) ["minLengthPx"]=> float(2.08166599947) ["minWidthFt"]=> float(8) ["minLengthFt"]=> float(10) ["sqFtPerPx"]=> float(4.80384461415) ["pxPerSqFt"]=> float(0.208166599947) ["metaTitle"]=> string(0) "" ["metaKeywords"]=> string(0) "" ["metaDescription"]=> string(0) "" ["expoContent"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaTitle"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaKeywords"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaDescription"]=> string(0) "" ["tsUpdate"]=> string(19) "2018-01-18 12:33:29" ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(39) { ["arenaId"]=> int(57) ["title"]=> string(8) "Outdoors" ["eventId"]=> int(14) ["description"]=> string(16) "

test

" ["pricePerSq"]=> float(2.5) ["arenaType"]=> string(6) "upload" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "fL5jm4Sf.jpg" ["imageMobile"]=> string(12) "YntmVE5M.jpg" ["imageMedium"]=> string(12) "T0jg9Zqm.jpg" ["spotIntersection"]=> int(0) ["widthPx"]=> float(700) ["lengthPx"]=> float(906) ["widthFt"]=> float(1200) ["lengthFt"]=> float(800) ["paddingTop"]=> int(0) ["paddingRight"]=> int(0) ["paddingBottom"]=> int(0) ["paddingLeft"]=> int(0) ["sampleWidthPx"]=> float(700) ["sampleLengthPx"]=> float(740) ["sampleWidthFt"]=> float(800) ["sampleLengthFt"]=> float(1200) ["sampleX"]=> float(0) ["sampleY"]=> float(0) ["minWidthPx"]=> float(7.34563362368) ["minLengthPx"]=> float(7.34563362368) ["minWidthFt"]=> float(10) ["minLengthFt"]=> float(10) ["sqFtPerPx"]=> float(1.36135294956) ["pxPerSqFt"]=> float(0.734563362368) ["metaTitle"]=> string(0) "" ["metaKeywords"]=> string(0) "" ["metaDescription"]=> string(0) "" ["expoContent"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaTitle"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaKeywords"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaDescription"]=> string(0) "" ["tsUpdate"]=> string(19) "2018-01-08 11:52:27" ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["topMessages"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#265 (2) { ["value"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(1) ["total"]=> int(7) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(4) { ["topMessageId"]=> int(1) ["message"]=> string(31) "RESERVE YOUR BOOTH AND SAVE 20%" ["active"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["expoId"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#279 (2) { ["value"]=> int(14) ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["promoBannerRight"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#291 (2) { ["value"]=> array(1) { ["data"]=> array(6) { [0]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(166) ["title"]=> string(11) "Career Fair" ["link"]=> string(53) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/content/url/job_fair" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "i7HfBRR5.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "9iZ2sXqr.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(162) ["title"]=> string(10) "Buy Direct" ["link"]=> string(37) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/user/promo" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "xxhDgAjD.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "Sn4OUOnO.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(161) ["title"]=> string(5) "Demos" ["link"]=> string(38) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/demos" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "oSLRTme5.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "KlhYdokt.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(163) ["title"]=> string(10) "Save Money" ["link"]=> string(37) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/user/promo" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "dNZtAyLn.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "q5iHnC1Y.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(164) ["title"]=> string(15) "Artisan Gallery" ["link"]=> string(60) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/content/url/artisan_gallery" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "EW8M5s5i.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "CBEGVFbQ.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(160) ["title"]=> string(21) "Experience the Forest" ["link"]=> string(46) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/presentations" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "vYB8ue7u.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "I7C2HeUN.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["pageURL"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#288 (2) { ["value"]=> string(47) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com:443news/view/id/6996" ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["meta"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#282 (2) { ["value"]=> array(4) { ["title"]=> string(24) "Sawtech Log Expo Website" ["description"]=> string(0) "" ["keywords"]=> string(24) "Sawtech Log Expo Website" ["cannonical"]=> string(0) "" } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["isMobile"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#281 (2) { ["value"]=> int(0) ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["header_menu"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#294 (2) { ["value"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(30) ["total"]=> int(6) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(6) { [0]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(74) ["title"]=> string(6) "Agenda" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/2018_agenda" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(0) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(0) { } } } [1]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(1) ["title"]=> string(12) "Visitor Info" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(5) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(5) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(2) ["title"]=> string(14) "About the Show" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "index/showoverview" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(5) ["title"]=> string(10) "Floor Plan" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "area/index/area/56" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(7) ["title"]=> string(23) "Hours/Prices/Directions" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(28) "index/content/url/show_hours" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(9) ["title"]=> string(13) "Accomodations" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(17) "user/accomodation" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(10) ["title"]=> string(3) "FAQ" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(3) "faq" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [2]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(11) ["title"]=> string(16) "ACTIVITIES & FUN" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(11) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(11) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(12) ["title"]=> string(17) "Pancake Breakfast" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(34) "expoactivity/networkingpage/id/269" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(13) ["title"]=> string(11) "Forest Tour" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(35) "expoactivity/techsessionpage/id/272" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(14) ["title"]=> string(15) "Artisan Gallery" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(33) "index/content/url/artisan_gallery" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(15) ["title"]=> string(8) "Job Fair" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(26) "index/content/url/job_fair" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(17) ["title"]=> string(14) "Selling Timber" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(30) "index/content/url/woodlotowner" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(67) ["title"]=> string(11) "Food Trucks" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/food_trucks" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [6]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(68) ["title"]=> string(9) "Breweries" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(27) "index/content/url/breweries" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [7]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(69) ["title"]=> string(13) "FPInnovations" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(31) "index/content/url/fpinnovations" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [8]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(71) ["title"]=> string(19) "Wood & River Tables" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(35) "index/content/url/hagenwood_courses" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [9]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(72) ["title"]=> string(11) "Maple Syrup" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(0) ["url"]=> string(23) "index/content/url/maple" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(10) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [10]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(73) ["title"]=> string(20) "What's Up With Ticks" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(23) "index/content/url/ticks" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(11) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [3]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(36) ["title"]=> string(14) "EXHIBITOR LIST" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "area/exhibitors" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(9) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(9) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(37) ["title"]=> string(3) "All" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "area/exhibitors" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(38) ["title"]=> string(11) "Agriculture" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/1" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) 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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?
 
"We're very pleased to have our product deployed locally for the first time," said Andrew Morden, the CEO of Corvus Energy, which produces full and hybrid lithium ion battery systems that power large and small vessels.  
 
"We've done the same thing [for ships] that Tesla's done for cars," said Morden. 
 
The company's batteries are currently being used in 35 ships across Northern Europe, and it recently received an investment from Statoil, Norway's largest offshore oil company.
 
Soon, the batteries will also be used in vessels on Canada's West Coast. SeaSpan has signed off for two hybrid cargo ferries, and Morden said BC Ferries is also considering using the technology.
 
Morden said one of the company's hybrid systems results in a 20 per cent reduction in carbon emissions.
 
That's particularly encouraging, he says, given that most large vessels are powered by diesel fuel, which produces more fine particulate matter than gasoline.
 
"In the shipping industry there's certainly been a focus on reducing emissions, because on a global scale it really does matter," said Morden. 

 
More incentives needed for change
 
Robert L. Evans, author of Fueling Our Future: an Introduction to Sustainable Energy, agrees that lithium batteries are a much cleaner energy source.

But he says just creating cleaner technology isn't enough to get industries to start using it. 
 
"The issue is the very high energy density and relatively low cost of fossil fuels," said Evans.
 
"If you don't have a price on carbon, that's where people will go. There needs some sort of incentive to move to something else."
 
Evans says there are only three sources of power in the world: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear. Currently, 80 per cent of the world's power comes from fossil fuels, he says. 
 
Diesel engines in particular are 20 to 30 per cent more efficient than gasoline, says Evans, which is why they're so often used for heavy duty industrial purposes. 
 
But he points to the car industry to show how lithium batteries could gain traction.
 
He says although cars like Tesla are too expensive for the average consumer, others like the Chevrolet Volt have started to use hybrid technology to offer consumers a more affordable and sustainable ride. 
 
Evans also calls attention to B.C.'s carbon tax, which he says has been effective in reducing emissions. 
 
"If you send a strong enough price signal to industry, they will start looking for other alternatives," he said. 
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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?

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SUDBURY, ONT.—In a hot, dark cavern buried two kilometres below the earth’s surface, a pallet of No Name dog food lies covered in dust.
 
These subterranean passageways have certainly seen stranger sights than bulk dog food. There was the one-of-a-kind sanding robot, for starters. There was the giant acrylic orb, split in two pieces to fit down the mine’s narrow elevator shaft. Over the next four weeks, there will be 3.6 tonnes of liquid argon.
 
Every day, a parade of physicists in coveralls and head lamps rattles down the elevator and tramps through these passages — plus engineers, welders, machinists, grad students, the occasional journalist. Stephen Hawking was here.
 
But to grasp the scale and ambition of what’s happening at SNOLAB, it helps to think about that pallet of dog food.
 
The scientists down here are building a massive experiment, DEAP-3600, designed to capture faint signals from dark matter, one of the greatest unresolved mysteries in physics. Whatever dark matter is, it accounts for the vast majority of the matter in the universe. Physicists have described the ordinary, visible matter we know — galaxies, comets, planets, us — as the froth on top of a deep, dark ocean. But we don’t know what that ocean is made of. Dark matter is invisible: its existence is inferred, never seen.
 
At SNOLAB, scientists want to change that. They are building the world’s most sensitive dark matter detector of its kind, going to painstaking lengths — burying the lab in an ore mine in Sudbury, for instance — to avoid anything that might mask a signal.
 
An experiment of this scale is a scientific feat involving 65 researchers at 10 institutions in three countries. It is also a logistical nightmare.
 
“We’re pushing right at the edge of technical capabilities of different scientific techniques,” says Mark Boulay, an experimental particle astrophysicist at Carleton and Queen’s universities and project director for DEAP. “But we’re also building a large construction project.”
 
On top of the behaviour of subatomic particles, Boulay and his DEAP collaborators must contend with Ministry of Labour approvals, missing wrenches, and budgets, budgets, budgets. Someone at SNOLAB must maintain that large supply of dog food. The lab hosts dozens of workers daily, but usually not enough to satisfy the microbes that keep the sewer treatment plant functional. Dog food supplements the microbes’ diet.
 
These prosaic demands can seem jarring in contrast to the lab’s and the experiment’s ambitions. On Thursday, Queen’s University physicist Arthur McDonald will accept a Nobel Prize for his work on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). SNO was the precursor to the expanded SNOLAB, where 10 experiments are now underway in addition to DEAP. Boulay was part of the SNO team; DEAP is the inheritance of the expertise accumulated as a direct result of its success.
 
“Certainly with the facility we have at SNOLAB, and all the expertise we have built up in Canada in particle astrophysics, we are at the leading edge of the field. What we are doing is of that calibre,” says Boulay. “We have excellent potential for discovery and for scientific impact, and we are right around the corner from turning on.”
 
But experimental particle physics is big, high-stakes science. Other ambitious dark matter detectors have found nothing, which is helpful for defining where to look next, but not the result researchers dream about. If theorists’ current best guess for what dark matter is made of is wrong, DEAP won’t find anything either.
 
Then again, if the theorists are right, the world’s best shot at discovering dark matter may be sitting in an ore mine in Sudbury.

 
WIMPs that go bump in the night
 
To get to work every day, SNOLAB scientists and staff perform what is surely one of the world’s strangest commutes.
 
Usually before dawn, they arrive at Creighton Mine, a half-hour drive west of downtown Sudbury. Creighton is an active ore mine owned by Vale (formerly Inco). Vale allows the scientists to piggyback on its existing infrastructure, a critical resource: without it, operating the lab would cost millions more. At Creighton, the scientists and staff suit up in mining gear: coveralls, head lamps, safety belts.
 
They cram shoulder to shoulder with miners in “the cage,” an open-sided elevator. After a rat-a-tat Morse code-like message to the operator below, the cage starts to plummet down the mine shaft. It will descend two kilometres — almost four times the length of the CN tower — so quickly that newbies are advised to chew gum.
 
At the second-deepest stop, the SNOLAB scientists are released into “the drift,” a dark, dust-flecked tunnel. The ambient temperature in the drift is 42 C — ventilation lowers it — and the air pressure is 20 per cent higher than at surface, a combination of effects that can leave a first-timer feeling slightly strange. The ground is muddy and criss-crossed by railcar tracks.
 
After trudging 1.4 kilometres through the drift, the crew arrives at a door and a wall of hoses hammered into the rock: the boot wash station. “Welcome to SNOLAB,” a banner declares. “Your cleanliness journey begins here!” The banner marks a transition in this commute: the switch between the dirty first half and the even more convoluted, clean second half.
 
Why bury a physics lab in an operational ore mine? Because every minute on the Earth’s surface, thousands of super-high-energy particles from outer space bombard your body. This is not a tinfoil-hat conspiracy. It is a basic fact of physics.
 
These “cosmic rays” were great for mid-century scientists, who measured them to discover subatomic particles. They are harmless for the rest of us, part of the background radiation we absorb daily. They are ruinous for a dark matter detector.
 
DEAP relies on picking up incredibly faint interactions — if they are happening at all — between dark matter and the 3.6 tonnes of liquid argon trapped inside an acrylic vessel at its core. Again, physicists have no idea what dark matter is made of. But the most popular candidate is a hypothetical particle known as a WIMP, for weakly interacting massive particle. The SNOLAB scientists are hoping to see a WIMP bump into the nucleus of an argon atom, emitting a pulse of light that the detector can capture.
 
Above ground, cosmic rays would ping the argon incessantly, overwhelming the dark matter interactions scientists are looking for. Burying the lab in a mine underneath 2,070 metres of norite rock substantially reduces this problem: a dozen or fewer particles will make it through the rock every month. But cosmic rays are not the only type of radiation that keeps Boulay up at night, not even close.
 
The potassium in human sweat is slightly radioactive; half a dozen fingerprints would jeopardize the experiment. But the “worst enemy” of detectors is radon, a radioactive gas that is the decay product of uranium and thorium. Radon is found naturally in all kinds of environments, including soil, rock and air. It can reach levels dangerous to human health if it becomes trapped in an enclosed space, like a well-sealed basement. Radon is found in particularly high dosages in mines.
 
You can probably anticipate the irony here. A crucial part of what will make DEAP the most sensitive dark matter detector of its kind is its ultra-clean environment: the scientists’ ability to mute background noise, or unwanted interactions. Burying the lab in an ore mine accomplishes that in part. But burying the lab in an ore mine also makes the risk of exposure to other types of radiation substantially worse.
 
“You can think of the mine down here as sort of the deepest, darkest, most well-sealed basement — the worst place ever for radon,” says Boulay.
 
To reduce contamination from the mine, everything that enters SNOLAB — including the people — follows a strict routine belied by the cheery tone of the boot wash station banner.

 
No detail is ‘trivial’
 
In matching blue onesies and white helmets, the staff of SNOLAB sometimes resembles a diligent Smurf colony.
 
The outfits are part of a stringent cleanliness protocol that begins after entering SNOLAB from the drift, including showering, changing into a laundered set of clothing that never leaves the facility, and donning hairnets and a clean helmet.
 
Everything else that enters SNOLAB is run through a room called the “car wash,” which is exactly what it sounds like. Inside SNOLAB, the walls are covered in four inches of shotcrete and painted with a glossy, easily washable material; sticky, dust-trapping mats lie underfoot.
 
“Every single surface has been cleaned by hand,” says Nigel Smith, SNOLAB’s director. “Every nut and bolt and piece of steel or bracket gets washed and cleaned before it comes into the lab.”
 
If this sounds exacting, it’s nothing compared to the rigour with which the scientists select materials that make up DEAP.
 
“People in our field do some really mad stuff, generally, to find low-background materials,” says Smith. “There’s no point coming all the way down here and shielding your detector and then putting a radioactive component into (it).”
 
The plumbing system that will draw the argon into the acrylic vessel at the detector’s core is made of electro-polished stainless steel, a process that involves submerging the steel in a vat of acid and running an electrical current through it. Electro-polishing removes a thin layer of surface material, making the steel incredibly smooth and easy to clean.
 
The argon itself will be purged of radon through a custom-built, low-radioactivity charcoal filter. Arthur McDonald is leading DEAP’s search for purer forms of argon, and is collaborating with a U.S. group that — for the benefit of obsessive experimental physicists — is hunting for argon from deep underground sources, which contain less of a troublesome isotope produced via interactions with cosmic rays. This ultra-pure argon will be used in later runs of the experiment, boosting the detector’s sensitivity.
 
From experience with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, the team already knew that acrylic is an exceptionally clean material. It is usually used in environments where it needs to be visibly clear: the primary business of one company SNOLAB works with is fabricating massive tanks for aquariums and zoos. The vessel fabricated for DEAP, the team claims, is made of the cleanest acrylic ever manufactured.
 
DEAP collaborators travelled to the facility in Thailand where the acrylic panels were cast to scrutinize the process: mixing a monomer slurry, pouring it into moulds, and letting it cure. Special air filters were installed in the factory, and the transport trucks followed a strict protocol. Afterward, the 11-centimetre-thick panels were shipped to Colorado, where they were heated and bent into five orange-slice-shaped sections and bonded together. The vessel was machined by DEAP collaborators at the University of Alberta and then transported to Creighton, where it was slung below the cage — it was too big to fit inside — and carefully lowered down.
 
That wasn’t enough trouble for the team: Queen’s engineers and scientists spent five years designing and building a resurfacing robot to shave approximately a millimetre of acrylic from the inner surface of the vessel, which may have been contaminated with radon simply from being exposed to air. The robot used diamond sanding pads that were chosen like many other detector materials: by testing a dozen choices in a radon assay system and selecting the one with the lowest levels. After sanding, the interior was flushed with tonne after tonne of ultra-pure water (kind of like tooth polishing, as a DEAP team member suggested).
 
“We are trying to build some of the lowest-radiation environments in the universe,” Smith says. This is what makes DEAP 20 times more sensitive than the next best dark matter detector.
 
These science concerns are always compounded by logistical ones. Boulay’s most frequently used expression is “non-trivial,” and he applies it to many things. Removing the sanding robot from the interior of the acrylic vessel? Non-trivial. It involved installing an extraction canister, which involved operating a lifting device, which involved waiting for an approval, one of the many delays DEAP has experienced (though it is not as far behind schedule as SNO was).
 
“Doing things that haven’t been done before is not trivial,” Boulay says. “We’re doing them at a very large scale, and we’re doing them underground, which complicates things enormously.”
 
“It’s critical because if we drop it, we’re screwed,” Smith said three months earlier, explaining why the entire DEAP team was in meetings on the surface. (He quickly clarified that “critical” technically means lifting something close to the maximum capacity of the hoist.)
 
By the time of the lift, the vessel and its frame weighed 30,000 pounds. It was covered in hardware, including 255 photomultipliers, which collect the light generated by a dark matter event. A team member who laid his hands on it to check a load sensor looked as though he was trying to perform a religious miracle. But after months of meetings and two four-inch-thick binders of plans, the critical lift was a success. The vessel now hangs in an eight-metre-wide tank of ultra-pure water, its final protective shield.
 
The team will spend the next several weeks running calibrations that, when the detector begins to collect data early next year, will help them differentiate between false events and real dark matter detections. Despite the DEAP team’s incredible diligence, the detector will still be drowned in a cacophony of noise: in a single year, it might register a dozen dark matter detections compared to a billion background events.
 
But if Boulay and his collaborators see what they are looking for, it will be the resolution of a tantalizing cosmic mystery.

 
Deep dark secrets
 
Dark matter is just the latest insult to the notion that humans and our tiny blue planet are central to the universe, as Ken Freeman and Geoff McNamara write in their book In Search of Dark Matter.
 
Copernicus showed that the sun, not the Earth, is the centre of our solar system. Galileo discovered that our sun is just one among many in the Milky Way. Edwin Hubble saw that the Milky Way was not the entirety of the universe but one galaxy among many.
 
Now, we know that everything we are made of and everything we can see — visible matter; matter that interacts with the electromagnetic force and therefore reflects, absorbs and emits light — is an insignificant fraction of the mass in the universe, less than 5 per cent.
 
Dark matter accounts for 26 per cent of everything in the universe. The rest is dark energy, an even more mysterious phenomenon.
 
Astronomers first began stumbling against dark matter in the 1930s. Fritz Zwicky, a Swiss-born astronomer working in California, is known today as both an underappreciated genius and an irascible oddball (he reportedly referred to his many academic enemies as “spherical bastards,” because they were bastards viewed from any angle). Zwicky hypothesized the existence of dark matter when he noticed that galaxies in the distant Coma Cluster were spinning far too quickly considering how much they weighed. His unpopularity may have been part of the reason his ideas didn’t gain widespread acceptance before his death in 1974.
 
But Rubin and Ford didn’t observe that. The outer stars were spinning as quickly as the interior stars, and sometimes faster. They concluded that the galaxies must be surrounded by a halo of matter they could not see.
 
Theorists have postulated many candidates for what dark matter might be. But the most widely accepted hypothesis is the WIMP, a particle that interacts with gravity but not light, hence its invisibility to us.
 
Neither WIMPs nor any other particle that could successfully explain dark matter exist in the standard model of particle physics, the theoretical framework that has successfully predicted nearly all the phenomena in the universe.
 
Directly observing a WIMP interaction would not be the first advance in physics “beyond the standard model”: the discovery that neutrinos oscillate, for which Arthur McDonald co-won the Nobel Prize, showed that the standard model cannot be complete.
 
But observing dark matter would open up a new chapter in physics. It would almost certainly earn another Nobel Prize for SNOLAB — or whoever finds it first. Other detectors are running or underway, including one inside a mountain in Italy that has similar sensitivities to DEAP but is scheduled to turn on later and uses xenon. Experiments are ongoing at the Large Hadron Collider and aboard the International Space Station.
 
Asked whether he would be disappointed if DEAP did not detect dark matter, project director Mark Boulay hesitates, then sighs, then laughs. “Having the detector operate as designed would be an accomplishment,” he says. “It’s still a real scientific result, whether or not we see it.”
 
When the Nobel physics prize was announced on Oct. 6, McDonald was predictably deluged with phone calls. In a late afternoon interview with the Star, he was exhausted. But he perked up when the subject turned to DEAP.
 
The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory had given Canada one “eureka” moment, he said, and the DEAP team is hopeful it can provide another one.
 
“The big thing, though,” he added, “is that our students have the idea that they can make a difference in terms of really changing the way we look at things in a fundamental way in physics, and they can do it here in Canada.”

 
Expensive science
 
$65 million Cost of expanding SNO into SNOLAB, completed in 2011
 
$8 million SNOLAB’s annual operating cost
 
$20 million Cost of constructing DEAP, to date
 
10 Number of institutions collaborating on DEAP: in Canada, Carleton University, Queen’s University, TRIUMF, SNOLAB, University of Alberta and Laurentian University; in the U.K., Royal Holloway (University of London), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and University of Sussex; and National Autonomous University of Mexico.
 
SNOLAB construction funding Provided by Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), Ontario Innovation trust, Northern Ontario Heritage Fund, and FedNor.
 
SNOLAB operational funding Provided by Ontario Research Fund’s Research Excellence Program, NSERC, CFI and member institutions. Vale provides in-kind funding. The city of Sudbury has provided a five-year grant for public education.
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SUDBURY, ONT.—In a hot, dark cavern buried two kilometres below the earth’s surface, a pallet of No Name dog food lies covered in dust.

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Michael Gravelle took another pummelling last week over the state of the province’s slumping mining sector, but he was right to point out that metal prices are in a deep trough, even if that explanation is beginning to sound a little lame.
 
Among other things, the veteran Northern Development and Mines minister was taken to task by Auditor-General Bonnie Lysyk for not doing enough to buck-up investment in this province’s mining industry.
 
Ontario’s chamber of commerce has been hammering on this point, too, although the ministry partially responded just before Lysyk’s report came out by pledging to make it easier for prospectors and junior companies to register claims. Instead of physically driving stakes into the ground, they can fire up a computer and access a new electronic grid.
 
According to Lysyk’s report, Ontario is sorely lagging behind other provinces in terms of investment promotion, even though this province remains home to the majority of the country’s mines.
 
But metal prices are the key driver, and they always will be, even when Gravelle gets dumped on.
 
Despite the gloomy forecast for the Ring of Fire, several gold-mining projects continue to advance in other parts of Northwestern Ontario — very likely because gold’s value has remained above US $1,000 per ounce.
 
Earlier this year, a Toronto exploration company began the expensive job of going underground to firm up a potential new gold deposit just north of White River.
 
It’s easy to forget just how close Cliffs Natural Resources came to going forward with its plan to build the first chromite mine in the RoF, about 550 kilometres northeast of Thunder Bay.
 
Cliffs spent a sizable $500 million on pre-development work, while the province, on Gravelle’s watch, agreed to pay half of the cost of a $600-million north-south access road that Cliffs required. (That’s another thing that’s easy to forget when Gravelle is being dumped on.)
 
When metal prices started to fall two years ago, and investors began to notice that many Chinese infrastructure projects fuelling the demand for Canadian minerals had been over-built, Cliffs and other major companies were forced to pull up stakes and downsize.
 
That’s out of Gravelle’s control, despite what his critics might imply. But one thing the province can continue working on in the absence of big players like Cliffs is an RoF access road.
 
It was suggested again last week that this might actually happen, now that a like-minded Liberal government is ensconced in Ottawa. Surely it’s of national concern that Ontario remains the only Canadian Shield province without an all-weather road into its far north.
 
If that changes before Gravelle’s term as mines minister is up, he’ll have really accomplished something.
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Michael Gravelle took another pummelling last week over the state of the province’s slumping mining sector, but he was right to point out that metal prices are in a deep trough, even if that explanation is beginning to sound a little lame.

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Northern Development and Mines Minister Michael Gravelle said Ontario’s new mineral development strategy will tackle all the issues and concerns raised in the provincial auditor general’s report.
A harsh critique of the effectiveness of Ontario’s mines and mineral program by provincial auditor general Bonnie Lysyk was greeted with enthusiasm by the minister of Northern Development and Mines.
 
“I’m not exaggerating when I say I’m grateful for her recommendations,” said Michael Gravelle.
 
Gravelle expressed surprise that Lysyk’s annual report could be viewed as a scathing review of his ministry that appears to have shortfalls in encouraging mining investment, has disengaged in First Nation-industry consultation, shown no evidence of advancing the Ring of Fire, and lacks the resources and technical expertise to oversee mine closure plans and inspect abandoned mines.
 
“It’s funny I just don’t read it that way. I do not interpret it that way. When I look at the recommendations regarding abandoned mines, regarding our closure plans, they are all things that we take very seriously regardless.”
 
Gravelle said all of the issues raised in the report are “total priorities for us, and in that regard her recommendations strengthen our operations, our direction, and our goals. That’s why I’m pleased.”
 
Many of those issues, he said, will be addressed shortly when the government rolls out its new mineral development strategy, last updated in 2006. That could come as early as Dec. 11 when Gravelle attends a Northern Ontario Heritage Fund board meeting in Sudbury, but he refused to confirm that and dropped no hints on the contents of the strategy.
 
“The bottom line is we are more than listening to what the auditor general has to say and are taking it very seriously.”
 
In her report, Lysyk wrote five years after the creation of a 19-member Ring of Fire Secretariat, there is no evidence of a “detailed plan or timeline for developing the region,” noting the government-created entity has constantly missed development milestones established by the province.
 
A Ring of Fire Development Corporation, established in 2014, remains non-operational with a board of directors consisting of five senior bureaucrats that has not engaged industry, First Nation leadership, or the federal government.
 
Gravelle staunchly defended the Secretariat and the development corporation saying he’s “very proud” and “grateful” for their work in building partnerships and overseeing the technical studies on the transportation infrastructure.
 
Gravelle met with Lysyk for an hour prior to the release of the report. While he didn’t agree with all of her findings, he didn’t dispute them.
 
The minister explained the challenges of imposing timelines on a major mineral project when commodity prices are soft, securing exploration financing is difficult, complex socio-economic and resource revenue-sharing negotiations with the Matawa First Nations – the group of communities closest to the Ring of Fire – remain ongoing, and the relationship with the previous federal government “wasn’t the best.”
 
Queen’s Park has been waiting on Ottawa to provide $1 billion in matching provincial dollars to extend infrastructure to the Far North mineral deposits. To date, no construction dollars have been spent on mining infrastructure.
 
Gravelle said he expects to formally meet with new federal natural resources Jim Carr early in 2016 to discuss the Ring of Fire. While he’s “never been more optimistic” about firming up a better working relationship with Ottawa, he offered no date when federal infrastructure dollars are expected.
 
The auditor general also point out that the “lack of clarity” in Ontario’s regulations on the duty to consult with First Nations has stymied mining investment.
 
The report said Ontario has delegated more aspects of the Aboriginal consultation process over to the mining industry than its counterparts in British Columbia, Quebec and Manitoba.
 
Gravelle didn’t provide any indication his ministry will begin to take more of a lead role in managing the process. The Ontario introduced the exploration plans and permits process in 2013, requiring prospectors and junior mining to engage with First Nations at the earliest stage of exploration.
 
“When you look at the successful stories of mining projects moving forward that’s the way they end up being successful,” he said.
 
He denied the ministry has been hands-off in the process, but is “directly engaged on a daily basis on consultations with First Nations,” further adding that he’s personally gotten involved in discussions and negotiations between First Nations and companies.
 
“The point I’ve taken in the past….is that it makes sense from a First Nation point of view and industry point of view for us to encourage them to get together.”
 
Ontario Prospectors Association executive director Garry Clark is all for the province taking back the reins of Aboriginal consultation.
 
“Other provinces are further ahead of us on the consultation pieces. Consultation being driven by the ministry is important, nation to nation, instead of trying to piecemeal it with a bunch of geologists and prospectors.
 
“I think they’ve (government) taken note that this isn’t quite worked as well as they thought it would, and are making some changes.”
 
He hasn’t viewed a final draft of the province’s upcoming mineral strategy, but feels confident his association has “plated out all the issues” to a receptive ministry staff.
 
Ontario’s mining sector comprises almost a quarter of Canada’s total mineral production, valued at almost $11 billion in 2014. But exploration spending has tanked from a high of more than $1 billion in 2011 to $507 million in 2014. The number of active mining claims in 2014 was 235,000 units, a decline from 363,000 units in 2008.
 
The auditor determined the ministry “has not been effective in encouraging timely mineral development in the province.”
 
Clark can’t say for certain that the ministry is to blame when the entire industry is in a global slump.
 
“Our business is so slow right it’s unbelievable.”
 
Some companies have left Ontario, but new ones have arrived to explore the province’s world-class deposits, mentioning gold projects at Borden Lake, expansion at Lake Shore Gold, a slew of mergers in the industry.
 
He said much of the work of the Ring of Fire Secretariat doesn’t the industry as a whole – even though it’s a high-profile project – since exploration is at a standstill, but the Secretariat’s work in transferring training dollars and educating First Nations “to better understand mining is a good thing.”
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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?
 
"We're very pleased to have our product deployed locally for the first time," said Andrew Morden, the CEO of Corvus Energy, which produces full and hybrid lithium ion battery systems that power large and small vessels.  
 
"We've done the same thing [for ships] that Tesla's done for cars," said Morden. 
 
The company's batteries are currently being used in 35 ships across Northern Europe, and it recently received an investment from Statoil, Norway's largest offshore oil company.
 
Soon, the batteries will also be used in vessels on Canada's West Coast. SeaSpan has signed off for two hybrid cargo ferries, and Morden said BC Ferries is also considering using the technology.
 
Morden said one of the company's hybrid systems results in a 20 per cent reduction in carbon emissions.
 
That's particularly encouraging, he says, given that most large vessels are powered by diesel fuel, which produces more fine particulate matter than gasoline.
 
"In the shipping industry there's certainly been a focus on reducing emissions, because on a global scale it really does matter," said Morden. 

 
More incentives needed for change
 
Robert L. Evans, author of Fueling Our Future: an Introduction to Sustainable Energy, agrees that lithium batteries are a much cleaner energy source.

But he says just creating cleaner technology isn't enough to get industries to start using it. 
 
"The issue is the very high energy density and relatively low cost of fossil fuels," said Evans.
 
"If you don't have a price on carbon, that's where people will go. There needs some sort of incentive to move to something else."
 
Evans says there are only three sources of power in the world: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear. Currently, 80 per cent of the world's power comes from fossil fuels, he says. 
 
Diesel engines in particular are 20 to 30 per cent more efficient than gasoline, says Evans, which is why they're so often used for heavy duty industrial purposes. 
 
But he points to the car industry to show how lithium batteries could gain traction.
 
He says although cars like Tesla are too expensive for the average consumer, others like the Chevrolet Volt have started to use hybrid technology to offer consumers a more affordable and sustainable ride. 
 
Evans also calls attention to B.C.'s carbon tax, which he says has been effective in reducing emissions. 
 
"If you send a strong enough price signal to industry, they will start looking for other alternatives," he said. 
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The Statue of Justice oversees the Vancouver Law Courts.

VANCOUVER - Seven protesters hurt outside a Guatemalan mine owned by a company registered in British Columbia must file their lawsuit in the Central American country, a judge has ruled.
 
The men launched a civil claim in B.C. Supreme Court against Tahoe Resources Inc. (TSX: THO) after security guards sprayed protesters with rubber bullets outside the Escobal Mine in 2013.
 
The Guatemalan citizens had argued the case should be heard in B.C. because they had no faith that their country's legal system would hold the company accountable.
 
But Tahoe asked the court to decline jurisdiction and stay the lawsuit, and Justice Laura Gerow agreed with the company.
 
"It is apparent that trying this action in British Columbia will result in considerably greater inconvenience and expenses for the parties and dozens of witnesses," she said in a written decision.
 
She noted that translators would be required for all the Spanish-speaking plaintiffs, and evidence and witnesses would have to be transported from Guatemala and Tahoe's U.S. offices.
 
Tahoe is incorporated in B.C. but its headquarters and majority of its staff are in Reno, Nev. It is the parent company to Guatemalan-based Minera San Rafael, which owns the mine.
 
The judge ruled that Guatemala is clearly the more appropriate forum for the suit. She said the country's legal system is "imperfect" but functional.
 
"In my view, the public interest requires that Canadian courts proceed extremely cautiously in finding that a foreign court is incapable of providing justice to its own citizens," the decision said.
 
"To hold otherwise is to ignore the principle of comity and risk that other jurisdictions will treat the Canadian judicial system with similar disregard."
 
A criminal case is already underway in Guatemala against the security manager who allegedly ordered the shooting. The plaintiffs are seeking compensation for their injuries as part of that case.
 
The incident unfolded on April 27, 2013, when guards attempted to disperse protesters gathered outside the silver, gold, lead and zinc mine under construction.
 
Adolfo Garcia claimed a projectile lodged in his spine when he was shot in the back, while Luis Monroy said his sense of smell was destroyed when he was shot in the face.
 
The other plaintiffs, ranging in age from 17 to 40, are farmers and students who claimed projectiles hit them in the legs, knee and foot. They alleged shotguns, pepper spray and buck shot were also used.
 
The suit claimed Tahoe was liable for either authorizing the use of excessive force or negligence for not preventing the violence.
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VANCOUVER - Seven protesters hurt outside a Guatemalan mine owned by a company registered in British Columbia must file their lawsuit in the Central American country, a judge has ruled.

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Employee qualifications, knowledge and experience are the basis for a successful maintenance organization. We offer an extensive series of qualification seminars and user trainings for vibration diagnosis. 
 
• Certified vibration seminars in accordance with ISO Standard 18436-2 (Category I - III)
• Certified user trainings for the VIBGUARD Condition Monitoring System
• Specific user trainings.
 
In the field of industrial maintenance, there is an increasing demand for certified vibration experts. In some industries, a certification is even required by national and international regulations.


Dynamics simulator 1

What effects natural frequency? - See our Dynamics Simulator
Jason Tranter demonstrates the iTeachDynamics simulator. iTeachDynamics demonstrates how mass, stiffness and damping affect natural frequency. Please click the screen to see the video. Please be patient, the video may take a few seconds to load on slower connections.


Click screen to run the simulator 


Dynamics simulator 2

What effects the dynamics of a shaft? - See our Dynamics Simulator
Jason Tranter demonstrates the Shaft (rotor) version of the iTeachResonance simulator. This program demonstrates how mass, stiffness and damping affect the dynamics of a shaft.
 
Please click the screen to see the video. Please be patient, the video may take a few seconds to load on slower connections.


Click screen to run the simulator 
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Employee qualifications, knowledge and experience are the basis for a successful maintenance organization. We offer an extensive series of qualification seminars and user trainings for vibration diagnosis. 

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test

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test

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int(2) ["title"]=> string(14) "About the Show" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "index/showoverview" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(5) ["title"]=> string(10) "Floor Plan" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "area/index/area/56" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(7) ["title"]=> string(23) "Hours/Prices/Directions" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(28) "index/content/url/show_hours" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(9) ["title"]=> string(13) "Accomodations" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(17) "user/accomodation" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(10) ["title"]=> string(3) "FAQ" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(3) "faq" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [2]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(11) ["title"]=> string(16) "ACTIVITIES & FUN" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(11) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(11) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(12) ["title"]=> string(17) "Pancake Breakfast" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(34) "expoactivity/networkingpage/id/269" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(13) ["title"]=> string(11) "Forest Tour" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(35) "expoactivity/techsessionpage/id/272" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(14) ["title"]=> string(15) "Artisan Gallery" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(33) "index/content/url/artisan_gallery" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(15) ["title"]=> string(8) "Job Fair" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(26) "index/content/url/job_fair" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(17) ["title"]=> string(14) "Selling Timber" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(30) "index/content/url/woodlotowner" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(67) ["title"]=> string(11) "Food Trucks" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/food_trucks" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [6]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(68) ["title"]=> string(9) "Breweries" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(27) "index/content/url/breweries" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [7]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(69) ["title"]=> string(13) "FPInnovations" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(31) "index/content/url/fpinnovations" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [8]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(71) ["title"]=> string(19) "Wood & River Tables" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(35) "index/content/url/hagenwood_courses" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [9]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(72) ["title"]=> string(11) "Maple Syrup" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(0) ["url"]=> string(23) "index/content/url/maple" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(10) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [10]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(73) ["title"]=> string(20) "What's Up With Ticks" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(23) "index/content/url/ticks" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(11) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [3]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(36) ["title"]=> string(14) "EXHIBITOR LIST" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "area/exhibitors" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(9) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(9) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(37) ["title"]=> string(3) "All" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "area/exhibitors" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(38) ["title"]=> string(11) "Agriculture" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/1" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(39) ["title"]=> string(19) "Suppliers & Support" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/2" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(40) ["title"]=> string(9) "Education" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/3" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(41) ["title"]=> string(8) "Forestry" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/4" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(42) ["title"]=> string(10) "Rural Life" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/5" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [6]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(43) ["title"]=> string(29) "Non-Timber Products & BioMass" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/6" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [7]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(44) ["title"]=> string(11) "Value Added" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/7" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [8]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(45) ["title"]=> string(8) "Woodlots" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/8" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [4]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(47) ["title"]=> string(15) "WANT TO EXHIBIT" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(7) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(7) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(48) ["title"]=> string(24) "Booth Space Availability" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(56) "https://orderbooth.sawtechlogexpo.com/event/detail/id/14" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(49) ["title"]=> string(19) "Artisan Why Exhibit" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(37) "index/content/url/artisan_why_exhibit" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(50) ["title"]=> string(11) "Why Exhibit" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/why_exhibit" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(51) ["title"]=> string(11) "Sponsorship" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(38) "index/content/url/sponsorship_packages" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(52) ["title"]=> string(13) "Our Marketing" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(27) "index/content/url/marketing" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(53) ["title"]=> string(10) "Prospectus" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(23) "pdf/STLE_Prospectus.pdf" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [6]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(54) ["title"]=> string(16) "Exhibitor Manual" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(16) "pdf/STLE_MAN.pdf" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [5]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(55) ["title"]=> string(10) "CONTACT US" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(25) "index/content/url/contact" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(0) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(0) { } } } } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["footer_menu"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#300 (2) { ["value"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(30) ["total"]=> int(5) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(5) { [0]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(20) ["title"]=> string(12) "GENERAL INFO" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(6) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(6) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(21) ["title"]=> string(4) "HOME" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(1) "/" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(22) ["title"]=> string(10) "EXHIBITORS" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "area/exhibitors" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(23) ["title"]=> string(10) "FLOOR PLAN" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "area/index/area/47" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(24) ["title"]=> string(15) "ARTISAN GALLERY" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(33) "index/content/url/artisan_gallery" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(25) ["title"]=> string(3) "FAQ" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(3) "faq" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(26) ["title"]=> string(14) "PRIVACY POLICY" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(31) "index/content/url/privacypolicy" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [1]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(27) ["title"]=> string(8) "VISITORS" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(3) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(3) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(28) ["title"]=> string(28) "SHOW HOURS/PRICES/DIRECTIONS" ["parentId"]=> int(27) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(28) "index/content/url/show_hours" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(29) ["title"]=> string(13) "ACCOMODATIONS" ["parentId"]=> int(27) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(17) "user/accomodation" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(30) ["title"]=> string(10) "WHY ATTEND" ["parentId"]=> int(27) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "index/whyattend" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } 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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?
 
"We're very pleased to have our product deployed locally for the first time," said Andrew Morden, the CEO of Corvus Energy, which produces full and hybrid lithium ion battery systems that power large and small vessels.  
 
"We've done the same thing [for ships] that Tesla's done for cars," said Morden. 
 
The company's batteries are currently being used in 35 ships across Northern Europe, and it recently received an investment from Statoil, Norway's largest offshore oil company.
 
Soon, the batteries will also be used in vessels on Canada's West Coast. SeaSpan has signed off for two hybrid cargo ferries, and Morden said BC Ferries is also considering using the technology.
 
Morden said one of the company's hybrid systems results in a 20 per cent reduction in carbon emissions.
 
That's particularly encouraging, he says, given that most large vessels are powered by diesel fuel, which produces more fine particulate matter than gasoline.
 
"In the shipping industry there's certainly been a focus on reducing emissions, because on a global scale it really does matter," said Morden. 

 
More incentives needed for change
 
Robert L. Evans, author of Fueling Our Future: an Introduction to Sustainable Energy, agrees that lithium batteries are a much cleaner energy source.

But he says just creating cleaner technology isn't enough to get industries to start using it. 
 
"The issue is the very high energy density and relatively low cost of fossil fuels," said Evans.
 
"If you don't have a price on carbon, that's where people will go. There needs some sort of incentive to move to something else."
 
Evans says there are only three sources of power in the world: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear. Currently, 80 per cent of the world's power comes from fossil fuels, he says. 
 
Diesel engines in particular are 20 to 30 per cent more efficient than gasoline, says Evans, which is why they're so often used for heavy duty industrial purposes. 
 
But he points to the car industry to show how lithium batteries could gain traction.
 
He says although cars like Tesla are too expensive for the average consumer, others like the Chevrolet Volt have started to use hybrid technology to offer consumers a more affordable and sustainable ride. 
 
Evans also calls attention to B.C.'s carbon tax, which he says has been effective in reducing emissions. 
 
"If you send a strong enough price signal to industry, they will start looking for other alternatives," he said. 
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SUDBURY, ONT.—In a hot, dark cavern buried two kilometres below the earth’s surface, a pallet of No Name dog food lies covered in dust.
 
These subterranean passageways have certainly seen stranger sights than bulk dog food. There was the one-of-a-kind sanding robot, for starters. There was the giant acrylic orb, split in two pieces to fit down the mine’s narrow elevator shaft. Over the next four weeks, there will be 3.6 tonnes of liquid argon.
 
Every day, a parade of physicists in coveralls and head lamps rattles down the elevator and tramps through these passages — plus engineers, welders, machinists, grad students, the occasional journalist. Stephen Hawking was here.
 
But to grasp the scale and ambition of what’s happening at SNOLAB, it helps to think about that pallet of dog food.
 
The scientists down here are building a massive experiment, DEAP-3600, designed to capture faint signals from dark matter, one of the greatest unresolved mysteries in physics. Whatever dark matter is, it accounts for the vast majority of the matter in the universe. Physicists have described the ordinary, visible matter we know — galaxies, comets, planets, us — as the froth on top of a deep, dark ocean. But we don’t know what that ocean is made of. Dark matter is invisible: its existence is inferred, never seen.
 
At SNOLAB, scientists want to change that. They are building the world’s most sensitive dark matter detector of its kind, going to painstaking lengths — burying the lab in an ore mine in Sudbury, for instance — to avoid anything that might mask a signal.
 
An experiment of this scale is a scientific feat involving 65 researchers at 10 institutions in three countries. It is also a logistical nightmare.
 
“We’re pushing right at the edge of technical capabilities of different scientific techniques,” says Mark Boulay, an experimental particle astrophysicist at Carleton and Queen’s universities and project director for DEAP. “But we’re also building a large construction project.”
 
On top of the behaviour of subatomic particles, Boulay and his DEAP collaborators must contend with Ministry of Labour approvals, missing wrenches, and budgets, budgets, budgets. Someone at SNOLAB must maintain that large supply of dog food. The lab hosts dozens of workers daily, but usually not enough to satisfy the microbes that keep the sewer treatment plant functional. Dog food supplements the microbes’ diet.
 
These prosaic demands can seem jarring in contrast to the lab’s and the experiment’s ambitions. On Thursday, Queen’s University physicist Arthur McDonald will accept a Nobel Prize for his work on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). SNO was the precursor to the expanded SNOLAB, where 10 experiments are now underway in addition to DEAP. Boulay was part of the SNO team; DEAP is the inheritance of the expertise accumulated as a direct result of its success.
 
“Certainly with the facility we have at SNOLAB, and all the expertise we have built up in Canada in particle astrophysics, we are at the leading edge of the field. What we are doing is of that calibre,” says Boulay. “We have excellent potential for discovery and for scientific impact, and we are right around the corner from turning on.”
 
But experimental particle physics is big, high-stakes science. Other ambitious dark matter detectors have found nothing, which is helpful for defining where to look next, but not the result researchers dream about. If theorists’ current best guess for what dark matter is made of is wrong, DEAP won’t find anything either.
 
Then again, if the theorists are right, the world’s best shot at discovering dark matter may be sitting in an ore mine in Sudbury.

 
WIMPs that go bump in the night
 
To get to work every day, SNOLAB scientists and staff perform what is surely one of the world’s strangest commutes.
 
Usually before dawn, they arrive at Creighton Mine, a half-hour drive west of downtown Sudbury. Creighton is an active ore mine owned by Vale (formerly Inco). Vale allows the scientists to piggyback on its existing infrastructure, a critical resource: without it, operating the lab would cost millions more. At Creighton, the scientists and staff suit up in mining gear: coveralls, head lamps, safety belts.
 
They cram shoulder to shoulder with miners in “the cage,” an open-sided elevator. After a rat-a-tat Morse code-like message to the operator below, the cage starts to plummet down the mine shaft. It will descend two kilometres — almost four times the length of the CN tower — so quickly that newbies are advised to chew gum.
 
At the second-deepest stop, the SNOLAB scientists are released into “the drift,” a dark, dust-flecked tunnel. The ambient temperature in the drift is 42 C — ventilation lowers it — and the air pressure is 20 per cent higher than at surface, a combination of effects that can leave a first-timer feeling slightly strange. The ground is muddy and criss-crossed by railcar tracks.
 
After trudging 1.4 kilometres through the drift, the crew arrives at a door and a wall of hoses hammered into the rock: the boot wash station. “Welcome to SNOLAB,” a banner declares. “Your cleanliness journey begins here!” The banner marks a transition in this commute: the switch between the dirty first half and the even more convoluted, clean second half.
 
Why bury a physics lab in an operational ore mine? Because every minute on the Earth’s surface, thousands of super-high-energy particles from outer space bombard your body. This is not a tinfoil-hat conspiracy. It is a basic fact of physics.
 
These “cosmic rays” were great for mid-century scientists, who measured them to discover subatomic particles. They are harmless for the rest of us, part of the background radiation we absorb daily. They are ruinous for a dark matter detector.
 
DEAP relies on picking up incredibly faint interactions — if they are happening at all — between dark matter and the 3.6 tonnes of liquid argon trapped inside an acrylic vessel at its core. Again, physicists have no idea what dark matter is made of. But the most popular candidate is a hypothetical particle known as a WIMP, for weakly interacting massive particle. The SNOLAB scientists are hoping to see a WIMP bump into the nucleus of an argon atom, emitting a pulse of light that the detector can capture.
 
Above ground, cosmic rays would ping the argon incessantly, overwhelming the dark matter interactions scientists are looking for. Burying the lab in a mine underneath 2,070 metres of norite rock substantially reduces this problem: a dozen or fewer particles will make it through the rock every month. But cosmic rays are not the only type of radiation that keeps Boulay up at night, not even close.
 
The potassium in human sweat is slightly radioactive; half a dozen fingerprints would jeopardize the experiment. But the “worst enemy” of detectors is radon, a radioactive gas that is the decay product of uranium and thorium. Radon is found naturally in all kinds of environments, including soil, rock and air. It can reach levels dangerous to human health if it becomes trapped in an enclosed space, like a well-sealed basement. Radon is found in particularly high dosages in mines.
 
You can probably anticipate the irony here. A crucial part of what will make DEAP the most sensitive dark matter detector of its kind is its ultra-clean environment: the scientists’ ability to mute background noise, or unwanted interactions. Burying the lab in an ore mine accomplishes that in part. But burying the lab in an ore mine also makes the risk of exposure to other types of radiation substantially worse.
 
“You can think of the mine down here as sort of the deepest, darkest, most well-sealed basement — the worst place ever for radon,” says Boulay.
 
To reduce contamination from the mine, everything that enters SNOLAB — including the people — follows a strict routine belied by the cheery tone of the boot wash station banner.

 
No detail is ‘trivial’
 
In matching blue onesies and white helmets, the staff of SNOLAB sometimes resembles a diligent Smurf colony.
 
The outfits are part of a stringent cleanliness protocol that begins after entering SNOLAB from the drift, including showering, changing into a laundered set of clothing that never leaves the facility, and donning hairnets and a clean helmet.
 
Everything else that enters SNOLAB is run through a room called the “car wash,” which is exactly what it sounds like. Inside SNOLAB, the walls are covered in four inches of shotcrete and painted with a glossy, easily washable material; sticky, dust-trapping mats lie underfoot.
 
“Every single surface has been cleaned by hand,” says Nigel Smith, SNOLAB’s director. “Every nut and bolt and piece of steel or bracket gets washed and cleaned before it comes into the lab.”
 
If this sounds exacting, it’s nothing compared to the rigour with which the scientists select materials that make up DEAP.
 
“People in our field do some really mad stuff, generally, to find low-background materials,” says Smith. “There’s no point coming all the way down here and shielding your detector and then putting a radioactive component into (it).”
 
The plumbing system that will draw the argon into the acrylic vessel at the detector’s core is made of electro-polished stainless steel, a process that involves submerging the steel in a vat of acid and running an electrical current through it. Electro-polishing removes a thin layer of surface material, making the steel incredibly smooth and easy to clean.
 
The argon itself will be purged of radon through a custom-built, low-radioactivity charcoal filter. Arthur McDonald is leading DEAP’s search for purer forms of argon, and is collaborating with a U.S. group that — for the benefit of obsessive experimental physicists — is hunting for argon from deep underground sources, which contain less of a troublesome isotope produced via interactions with cosmic rays. This ultra-pure argon will be used in later runs of the experiment, boosting the detector’s sensitivity.
 
From experience with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, the team already knew that acrylic is an exceptionally clean material. It is usually used in environments where it needs to be visibly clear: the primary business of one company SNOLAB works with is fabricating massive tanks for aquariums and zoos. The vessel fabricated for DEAP, the team claims, is made of the cleanest acrylic ever manufactured.
 
DEAP collaborators travelled to the facility in Thailand where the acrylic panels were cast to scrutinize the process: mixing a monomer slurry, pouring it into moulds, and letting it cure. Special air filters were installed in the factory, and the transport trucks followed a strict protocol. Afterward, the 11-centimetre-thick panels were shipped to Colorado, where they were heated and bent into five orange-slice-shaped sections and bonded together. The vessel was machined by DEAP collaborators at the University of Alberta and then transported to Creighton, where it was slung below the cage — it was too big to fit inside — and carefully lowered down.
 
That wasn’t enough trouble for the team: Queen’s engineers and scientists spent five years designing and building a resurfacing robot to shave approximately a millimetre of acrylic from the inner surface of the vessel, which may have been contaminated with radon simply from being exposed to air. The robot used diamond sanding pads that were chosen like many other detector materials: by testing a dozen choices in a radon assay system and selecting the one with the lowest levels. After sanding, the interior was flushed with tonne after tonne of ultra-pure water (kind of like tooth polishing, as a DEAP team member suggested).
 
“We are trying to build some of the lowest-radiation environments in the universe,” Smith says. This is what makes DEAP 20 times more sensitive than the next best dark matter detector.
 
These science concerns are always compounded by logistical ones. Boulay’s most frequently used expression is “non-trivial,” and he applies it to many things. Removing the sanding robot from the interior of the acrylic vessel? Non-trivial. It involved installing an extraction canister, which involved operating a lifting device, which involved waiting for an approval, one of the many delays DEAP has experienced (though it is not as far behind schedule as SNO was).
 
“Doing things that haven’t been done before is not trivial,” Boulay says. “We’re doing them at a very large scale, and we’re doing them underground, which complicates things enormously.”
 
“It’s critical because if we drop it, we’re screwed,” Smith said three months earlier, explaining why the entire DEAP team was in meetings on the surface. (He quickly clarified that “critical” technically means lifting something close to the maximum capacity of the hoist.)
 
By the time of the lift, the vessel and its frame weighed 30,000 pounds. It was covered in hardware, including 255 photomultipliers, which collect the light generated by a dark matter event. A team member who laid his hands on it to check a load sensor looked as though he was trying to perform a religious miracle. But after months of meetings and two four-inch-thick binders of plans, the critical lift was a success. The vessel now hangs in an eight-metre-wide tank of ultra-pure water, its final protective shield.
 
The team will spend the next several weeks running calibrations that, when the detector begins to collect data early next year, will help them differentiate between false events and real dark matter detections. Despite the DEAP team’s incredible diligence, the detector will still be drowned in a cacophony of noise: in a single year, it might register a dozen dark matter detections compared to a billion background events.
 
But if Boulay and his collaborators see what they are looking for, it will be the resolution of a tantalizing cosmic mystery.

 
Deep dark secrets
 
Dark matter is just the latest insult to the notion that humans and our tiny blue planet are central to the universe, as Ken Freeman and Geoff McNamara write in their book In Search of Dark Matter.
 
Copernicus showed that the sun, not the Earth, is the centre of our solar system. Galileo discovered that our sun is just one among many in the Milky Way. Edwin Hubble saw that the Milky Way was not the entirety of the universe but one galaxy among many.
 
Now, we know that everything we are made of and everything we can see — visible matter; matter that interacts with the electromagnetic force and therefore reflects, absorbs and emits light — is an insignificant fraction of the mass in the universe, less than 5 per cent.
 
Dark matter accounts for 26 per cent of everything in the universe. The rest is dark energy, an even more mysterious phenomenon.
 
Astronomers first began stumbling against dark matter in the 1930s. Fritz Zwicky, a Swiss-born astronomer working in California, is known today as both an underappreciated genius and an irascible oddball (he reportedly referred to his many academic enemies as “spherical bastards,” because they were bastards viewed from any angle). Zwicky hypothesized the existence of dark matter when he noticed that galaxies in the distant Coma Cluster were spinning far too quickly considering how much they weighed. His unpopularity may have been part of the reason his ideas didn’t gain widespread acceptance before his death in 1974.
 
But Rubin and Ford didn’t observe that. The outer stars were spinning as quickly as the interior stars, and sometimes faster. They concluded that the galaxies must be surrounded by a halo of matter they could not see.
 
Theorists have postulated many candidates for what dark matter might be. But the most widely accepted hypothesis is the WIMP, a particle that interacts with gravity but not light, hence its invisibility to us.
 
Neither WIMPs nor any other particle that could successfully explain dark matter exist in the standard model of particle physics, the theoretical framework that has successfully predicted nearly all the phenomena in the universe.
 
Directly observing a WIMP interaction would not be the first advance in physics “beyond the standard model”: the discovery that neutrinos oscillate, for which Arthur McDonald co-won the Nobel Prize, showed that the standard model cannot be complete.
 
But observing dark matter would open up a new chapter in physics. It would almost certainly earn another Nobel Prize for SNOLAB — or whoever finds it first. Other detectors are running or underway, including one inside a mountain in Italy that has similar sensitivities to DEAP but is scheduled to turn on later and uses xenon. Experiments are ongoing at the Large Hadron Collider and aboard the International Space Station.
 
Asked whether he would be disappointed if DEAP did not detect dark matter, project director Mark Boulay hesitates, then sighs, then laughs. “Having the detector operate as designed would be an accomplishment,” he says. “It’s still a real scientific result, whether or not we see it.”
 
When the Nobel physics prize was announced on Oct. 6, McDonald was predictably deluged with phone calls. In a late afternoon interview with the Star, he was exhausted. But he perked up when the subject turned to DEAP.
 
The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory had given Canada one “eureka” moment, he said, and the DEAP team is hopeful it can provide another one.
 
“The big thing, though,” he added, “is that our students have the idea that they can make a difference in terms of really changing the way we look at things in a fundamental way in physics, and they can do it here in Canada.”

 
Expensive science
 
$65 million Cost of expanding SNO into SNOLAB, completed in 2011
 
$8 million SNOLAB’s annual operating cost
 
$20 million Cost of constructing DEAP, to date
 
10 Number of institutions collaborating on DEAP: in Canada, Carleton University, Queen’s University, TRIUMF, SNOLAB, University of Alberta and Laurentian University; in the U.K., Royal Holloway (University of London), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and University of Sussex; and National Autonomous University of Mexico.
 
SNOLAB construction funding Provided by Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), Ontario Innovation trust, Northern Ontario Heritage Fund, and FedNor.
 
SNOLAB operational funding Provided by Ontario Research Fund’s Research Excellence Program, NSERC, CFI and member institutions. Vale provides in-kind funding. The city of Sudbury has provided a five-year grant for public education.
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Michael Gravelle took another pummelling last week over the state of the province’s slumping mining sector, but he was right to point out that metal prices are in a deep trough, even if that explanation is beginning to sound a little lame.
 
Among other things, the veteran Northern Development and Mines minister was taken to task by Auditor-General Bonnie Lysyk for not doing enough to buck-up investment in this province’s mining industry.
 
Ontario’s chamber of commerce has been hammering on this point, too, although the ministry partially responded just before Lysyk’s report came out by pledging to make it easier for prospectors and junior companies to register claims. Instead of physically driving stakes into the ground, they can fire up a computer and access a new electronic grid.
 
According to Lysyk’s report, Ontario is sorely lagging behind other provinces in terms of investment promotion, even though this province remains home to the majority of the country’s mines.
 
But metal prices are the key driver, and they always will be, even when Gravelle gets dumped on.
 
Despite the gloomy forecast for the Ring of Fire, several gold-mining projects continue to advance in other parts of Northwestern Ontario — very likely because gold’s value has remained above US $1,000 per ounce.
 
Earlier this year, a Toronto exploration company began the expensive job of going underground to firm up a potential new gold deposit just north of White River.
 
It’s easy to forget just how close Cliffs Natural Resources came to going forward with its plan to build the first chromite mine in the RoF, about 550 kilometres northeast of Thunder Bay.
 
Cliffs spent a sizable $500 million on pre-development work, while the province, on Gravelle’s watch, agreed to pay half of the cost of a $600-million north-south access road that Cliffs required. (That’s another thing that’s easy to forget when Gravelle is being dumped on.)
 
When metal prices started to fall two years ago, and investors began to notice that many Chinese infrastructure projects fuelling the demand for Canadian minerals had been over-built, Cliffs and other major companies were forced to pull up stakes and downsize.
 
That’s out of Gravelle’s control, despite what his critics might imply. But one thing the province can continue working on in the absence of big players like Cliffs is an RoF access road.
 
It was suggested again last week that this might actually happen, now that a like-minded Liberal government is ensconced in Ottawa. Surely it’s of national concern that Ontario remains the only Canadian Shield province without an all-weather road into its far north.
 
If that changes before Gravelle’s term as mines minister is up, he’ll have really accomplished something.
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Michael Gravelle took another pummelling last week over the state of the province’s slumping mining sector, but he was right to point out that metal prices are in a deep trough, even if that explanation is beginning to sound a little lame.

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Northern Development and Mines Minister Michael Gravelle said Ontario’s new mineral development strategy will tackle all the issues and concerns raised in the provincial auditor general’s report.
A harsh critique of the effectiveness of Ontario’s mines and mineral program by provincial auditor general Bonnie Lysyk was greeted with enthusiasm by the minister of Northern Development and Mines.
 
“I’m not exaggerating when I say I’m grateful for her recommendations,” said Michael Gravelle.
 
Gravelle expressed surprise that Lysyk’s annual report could be viewed as a scathing review of his ministry that appears to have shortfalls in encouraging mining investment, has disengaged in First Nation-industry consultation, shown no evidence of advancing the Ring of Fire, and lacks the resources and technical expertise to oversee mine closure plans and inspect abandoned mines.
 
“It’s funny I just don’t read it that way. I do not interpret it that way. When I look at the recommendations regarding abandoned mines, regarding our closure plans, they are all things that we take very seriously regardless.”
 
Gravelle said all of the issues raised in the report are “total priorities for us, and in that regard her recommendations strengthen our operations, our direction, and our goals. That’s why I’m pleased.”
 
Many of those issues, he said, will be addressed shortly when the government rolls out its new mineral development strategy, last updated in 2006. That could come as early as Dec. 11 when Gravelle attends a Northern Ontario Heritage Fund board meeting in Sudbury, but he refused to confirm that and dropped no hints on the contents of the strategy.
 
“The bottom line is we are more than listening to what the auditor general has to say and are taking it very seriously.”
 
In her report, Lysyk wrote five years after the creation of a 19-member Ring of Fire Secretariat, there is no evidence of a “detailed plan or timeline for developing the region,” noting the government-created entity has constantly missed development milestones established by the province.
 
A Ring of Fire Development Corporation, established in 2014, remains non-operational with a board of directors consisting of five senior bureaucrats that has not engaged industry, First Nation leadership, or the federal government.
 
Gravelle staunchly defended the Secretariat and the development corporation saying he’s “very proud” and “grateful” for their work in building partnerships and overseeing the technical studies on the transportation infrastructure.
 
Gravelle met with Lysyk for an hour prior to the release of the report. While he didn’t agree with all of her findings, he didn’t dispute them.
 
The minister explained the challenges of imposing timelines on a major mineral project when commodity prices are soft, securing exploration financing is difficult, complex socio-economic and resource revenue-sharing negotiations with the Matawa First Nations – the group of communities closest to the Ring of Fire – remain ongoing, and the relationship with the previous federal government “wasn’t the best.”
 
Queen’s Park has been waiting on Ottawa to provide $1 billion in matching provincial dollars to extend infrastructure to the Far North mineral deposits. To date, no construction dollars have been spent on mining infrastructure.
 
Gravelle said he expects to formally meet with new federal natural resources Jim Carr early in 2016 to discuss the Ring of Fire. While he’s “never been more optimistic” about firming up a better working relationship with Ottawa, he offered no date when federal infrastructure dollars are expected.
 
The auditor general also point out that the “lack of clarity” in Ontario’s regulations on the duty to consult with First Nations has stymied mining investment.
 
The report said Ontario has delegated more aspects of the Aboriginal consultation process over to the mining industry than its counterparts in British Columbia, Quebec and Manitoba.
 
Gravelle didn’t provide any indication his ministry will begin to take more of a lead role in managing the process. The Ontario introduced the exploration plans and permits process in 2013, requiring prospectors and junior mining to engage with First Nations at the earliest stage of exploration.
 
“When you look at the successful stories of mining projects moving forward that’s the way they end up being successful,” he said.
 
He denied the ministry has been hands-off in the process, but is “directly engaged on a daily basis on consultations with First Nations,” further adding that he’s personally gotten involved in discussions and negotiations between First Nations and companies.
 
“The point I’ve taken in the past….is that it makes sense from a First Nation point of view and industry point of view for us to encourage them to get together.”
 
Ontario Prospectors Association executive director Garry Clark is all for the province taking back the reins of Aboriginal consultation.
 
“Other provinces are further ahead of us on the consultation pieces. Consultation being driven by the ministry is important, nation to nation, instead of trying to piecemeal it with a bunch of geologists and prospectors.
 
“I think they’ve (government) taken note that this isn’t quite worked as well as they thought it would, and are making some changes.”
 
He hasn’t viewed a final draft of the province’s upcoming mineral strategy, but feels confident his association has “plated out all the issues” to a receptive ministry staff.
 
Ontario’s mining sector comprises almost a quarter of Canada’s total mineral production, valued at almost $11 billion in 2014. But exploration spending has tanked from a high of more than $1 billion in 2011 to $507 million in 2014. The number of active mining claims in 2014 was 235,000 units, a decline from 363,000 units in 2008.
 
The auditor determined the ministry “has not been effective in encouraging timely mineral development in the province.”
 
Clark can’t say for certain that the ministry is to blame when the entire industry is in a global slump.
 
“Our business is so slow right it’s unbelievable.”
 
Some companies have left Ontario, but new ones have arrived to explore the province’s world-class deposits, mentioning gold projects at Borden Lake, expansion at Lake Shore Gold, a slew of mergers in the industry.
 
He said much of the work of the Ring of Fire Secretariat doesn’t the industry as a whole – even though it’s a high-profile project – since exploration is at a standstill, but the Secretariat’s work in transferring training dollars and educating First Nations “to better understand mining is a good thing.”
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A harsh critique of the effectiveness of Ontario’s mines and mineral program by provincial auditor general Bonnie Lysyk was greeted with enthusiasm by the minister of Northern Development and Mines.

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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?
 
"We're very pleased to have our product deployed locally for the first time," said Andrew Morden, the CEO of Corvus Energy, which produces full and hybrid lithium ion battery systems that power large and small vessels.  
 
"We've done the same thing [for ships] that Tesla's done for cars," said Morden. 
 
The company's batteries are currently being used in 35 ships across Northern Europe, and it recently received an investment from Statoil, Norway's largest offshore oil company.
 
Soon, the batteries will also be used in vessels on Canada's West Coast. SeaSpan has signed off for two hybrid cargo ferries, and Morden said BC Ferries is also considering using the technology.
 
Morden said one of the company's hybrid systems results in a 20 per cent reduction in carbon emissions.
 
That's particularly encouraging, he says, given that most large vessels are powered by diesel fuel, which produces more fine particulate matter than gasoline.
 
"In the shipping industry there's certainly been a focus on reducing emissions, because on a global scale it really does matter," said Morden. 

 
More incentives needed for change
 
Robert L. Evans, author of Fueling Our Future: an Introduction to Sustainable Energy, agrees that lithium batteries are a much cleaner energy source.

But he says just creating cleaner technology isn't enough to get industries to start using it. 
 
"The issue is the very high energy density and relatively low cost of fossil fuels," said Evans.
 
"If you don't have a price on carbon, that's where people will go. There needs some sort of incentive to move to something else."
 
Evans says there are only three sources of power in the world: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear. Currently, 80 per cent of the world's power comes from fossil fuels, he says. 
 
Diesel engines in particular are 20 to 30 per cent more efficient than gasoline, says Evans, which is why they're so often used for heavy duty industrial purposes. 
 
But he points to the car industry to show how lithium batteries could gain traction.
 
He says although cars like Tesla are too expensive for the average consumer, others like the Chevrolet Volt have started to use hybrid technology to offer consumers a more affordable and sustainable ride. 
 
Evans also calls attention to B.C.'s carbon tax, which he says has been effective in reducing emissions. 
 
"If you send a strong enough price signal to industry, they will start looking for other alternatives," he said. 
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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?

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The Statue of Justice oversees the Vancouver Law Courts.

VANCOUVER - Seven protesters hurt outside a Guatemalan mine owned by a company registered in British Columbia must file their lawsuit in the Central American country, a judge has ruled.
 
The men launched a civil claim in B.C. Supreme Court against Tahoe Resources Inc. (TSX: THO) after security guards sprayed protesters with rubber bullets outside the Escobal Mine in 2013.
 
The Guatemalan citizens had argued the case should be heard in B.C. because they had no faith that their country's legal system would hold the company accountable.
 
But Tahoe asked the court to decline jurisdiction and stay the lawsuit, and Justice Laura Gerow agreed with the company.
 
"It is apparent that trying this action in British Columbia will result in considerably greater inconvenience and expenses for the parties and dozens of witnesses," she said in a written decision.
 
She noted that translators would be required for all the Spanish-speaking plaintiffs, and evidence and witnesses would have to be transported from Guatemala and Tahoe's U.S. offices.
 
Tahoe is incorporated in B.C. but its headquarters and majority of its staff are in Reno, Nev. It is the parent company to Guatemalan-based Minera San Rafael, which owns the mine.
 
The judge ruled that Guatemala is clearly the more appropriate forum for the suit. She said the country's legal system is "imperfect" but functional.
 
"In my view, the public interest requires that Canadian courts proceed extremely cautiously in finding that a foreign court is incapable of providing justice to its own citizens," the decision said.
 
"To hold otherwise is to ignore the principle of comity and risk that other jurisdictions will treat the Canadian judicial system with similar disregard."
 
A criminal case is already underway in Guatemala against the security manager who allegedly ordered the shooting. The plaintiffs are seeking compensation for their injuries as part of that case.
 
The incident unfolded on April 27, 2013, when guards attempted to disperse protesters gathered outside the silver, gold, lead and zinc mine under construction.
 
Adolfo Garcia claimed a projectile lodged in his spine when he was shot in the back, while Luis Monroy said his sense of smell was destroyed when he was shot in the face.
 
The other plaintiffs, ranging in age from 17 to 40, are farmers and students who claimed projectiles hit them in the legs, knee and foot. They alleged shotguns, pepper spray and buck shot were also used.
 
The suit claimed Tahoe was liable for either authorizing the use of excessive force or negligence for not preventing the violence.
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VANCOUVER - Seven protesters hurt outside a Guatemalan mine owned by a company registered in British Columbia must file their lawsuit in the Central American country, a judge has ruled.

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Employee qualifications, knowledge and experience are the basis for a successful maintenance organization. We offer an extensive series of qualification seminars and user trainings for vibration diagnosis. 
 
• Certified vibration seminars in accordance with ISO Standard 18436-2 (Category I - III)
• Certified user trainings for the VIBGUARD Condition Monitoring System
• Specific user trainings.
 
In the field of industrial maintenance, there is an increasing demand for certified vibration experts. In some industries, a certification is even required by national and international regulations.


Dynamics simulator 1

What effects natural frequency? - See our Dynamics Simulator
Jason Tranter demonstrates the iTeachDynamics simulator. iTeachDynamics demonstrates how mass, stiffness and damping affect natural frequency. Please click the screen to see the video. Please be patient, the video may take a few seconds to load on slower connections.


Click screen to run the simulator 


Dynamics simulator 2

What effects the dynamics of a shaft? - See our Dynamics Simulator
Jason Tranter demonstrates the Shaft (rotor) version of the iTeachResonance simulator. This program demonstrates how mass, stiffness and damping affect the dynamics of a shaft.
 
Please click the screen to see the video. Please be patient, the video may take a few seconds to load on slower connections.


Click screen to run the simulator 
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["plugin_search_order"]=> array(4) { [0]=> string(8) "function" [1]=> string(5) "block" [2]=> string(8) "compiler" [3]=> string(5) "class" } ["_cache"]=> array(0) { } ["ldelPreg":"Smarty_Internal_TemplateCompilerBase":private]=> string(3) "[{]" ["rdelPreg":"Smarty_Internal_TemplateCompilerBase":private]=> string(3) "[}]" ["rdelLength":"Smarty_Internal_TemplateCompilerBase":private]=> int(1) ["ldelLength":"Smarty_Internal_TemplateCompilerBase":private]=> int(1) ["literalPreg":"Smarty_Internal_TemplateCompilerBase":private]=> string(0) "" } [2]=> array(1) { ["value"]=> string(47) "$_smarty_tpl->tpl_vars['c']->value['firstName']" } [3]=> NULL [4]=> NULL } } [3]=> array(6) { ["file"]=> string(86) "/home/miningli/sawtech/libs/Smarty/sysplugins/smarty_internal_templatecompilerbase.php" ["line"]=> int(1396) ["function"]=> string(15) "callTagCompiler" ["class"]=> string(36) "Smarty_Internal_TemplateCompilerBase" ["type"]=> string(2) "->" ["args"]=> array(3) { [0]=> string(24) "private_print_expression" [1]=> array(1) { [0]=> string(46) "$_smarty_tpl->tpl_vars['c']->value['lastName']" } [2]=> array(1) { ["value"]=> string(47) "$_smarty_tpl->tpl_vars['c']->value['firstName']" } } } [4]=> array(6) { ["file"]=> string(86) "/home/miningli/sawtech/libs/Smarty/sysplugins/smarty_internal_templatecompilerbase.php" ["line"]=> int(505) ["function"]=> string(11) "compileTag2" ["class"]=> string(36) "Smarty_Internal_TemplateCompilerBase" ["type"]=> string(2) "->" ["args"]=> array(3) { [0]=> string(24) "private_print_expression" [1]=> array(1) { [0]=> string(46) "$_smarty_tpl->tpl_vars['c']->value['lastName']" } [2]=> array(1) { ["value"]=> string(47) "$_smarty_tpl->tpl_vars['c']->value['firstName']" } } } [5]=> array(6) { ["file"]=> string(80) "/home/miningli/sawtech/libs/Smarty/sysplugins/smarty_internal_templateparser.php" ["line"]=> int(2228) ["function"]=> string(10) "compileTag" ["class"]=> string(36) "Smarty_Internal_TemplateCompilerBase" ["type"]=> string(2) "->" ["args"]=> array(3) { [0]=> string(24) "private_print_expression" [1]=> array(1) { [0]=> string(46) "$_smarty_tpl->tpl_vars['c']->value['lastName']" } [2]=> array(1) { ["value"]=> string(47) "$_smarty_tpl->tpl_vars['c']->value['firstName']" } } } [6]=> array(6) { ["file"]=> string(80) "/home/miningli/sawtech/libs/Smarty/sysplugins/smarty_internal_templateparser.php" ["line"]=> int(3454) ["function"]=> string(6) "yy_r17" ["class"]=> string(30) "Smarty_Internal_Templateparser" ["type"]=> string(2) "->" ["args"]=> array(0) { } } [7]=> array(6) { ["file"]=> string(80) "/home/miningli/sawtech/libs/Smarty/sysplugins/smarty_internal_templateparser.php" ["line"]=> int(3548) ["function"]=> string(9) "yy_reduce" ["class"]=> string(30) "Smarty_Internal_Templateparser" ["type"]=> string(2) "->" ["args"]=> array(1) { [0]=> int(17) } } [8]=> array(6) { ["file"]=> string(88) "/home/miningli/sawtech/libs/Smarty/sysplugins/smarty_internal_smartytemplatecompiler.php" ["line"]=> int(118) ["function"]=> string(7) "doParse" ["class"]=> string(30) "Smarty_Internal_Templateparser" ["type"]=> string(2) "->" ["args"]=> array(2) { [0]=> int(15) [1]=> string(1) "}" } } [9]=> array(6) { ["file"]=> string(86) "/home/miningli/sawtech/libs/Smarty/sysplugins/smarty_internal_templatecompilerbase.php" ["line"]=> int(423) ["function"]=> string(9) "doCompile" ["class"]=> string(38) "Smarty_Internal_SmartyTemplateCompiler" ["type"]=> string(2) "->" ["args"]=> array(2) { [0]=> string(3979) "{include file='header.tpl'}
Home > {if !empty($company)}{$company.title} > {/if} {$post.title}

{$post.title}

{$post.dateAdded|date_format}
{if !empty($post.author)}By {$post.author}
{/if} {if !empty($post.subTitle)} {$post.subTitle}
{/if}

{$post.post}

{if !empty($post.sourceLink)}

Source: {$post.sourceLink}

{/if}
{if $post.postType!='companyarticle'}

COMMENTS ({$commentsCount})

{if count($comments.data) >0} {foreach from=$comments.data item=c name=com} {if $smarty.foreach.com.iteration==4} READ ALL COMMENTS {/if} {/foreach} {else}

No comments.

{/if} {if !empty($smarty.session.user.userId)}
{if isset($notice)}
{$notice}
{/if}

ADD A COMMENT

{else} {/if} {/if}
{include file='rightblock.tpl'}
{include file='footer.tpl'} " [1]=> bool(true) } } [10]=> array(6) { ["file"]=> string(86) "/home/miningli/sawtech/libs/Smarty/sysplugins/smarty_internal_templatecompilerbase.php" ["line"]=> int(351) ["function"]=> string(21) "compileTemplateSource" ["class"]=> string(36) "Smarty_Internal_TemplateCompilerBase" ["type"]=> string(2) "->" ["args"]=> array(3) { [0]=> object(Smarty_Internal_Template)#231 (24) { ["_objType"]=> int(2) ["smarty"]=> object(Smarty)#166 (76) { ["auto_literal"]=> bool(true) ["error_unassigned"]=> bool(false) ["use_include_path"]=> bool(false) ["_templateDirNormalized"]=> bool(false) ["_joined_template_dir"]=> string(68) "/home/miningli/sawtech/applications/modules/default/views/templates/" ["_configDirNormalized"]=> bool(false) ["_joined_config_dir"]=> NULL ["default_template_handler_func"]=> NULL ["default_config_handler_func"]=> NULL ["default_plugin_handler_func"]=> NULL ["_compileDirNormalized"]=> bool(true) ["_pluginsDirNormalized"]=> bool(true) ["_cacheDirNormalized"]=> bool(false) ["force_compile"]=> bool(true) ["use_sub_dirs"]=> bool(false) ["allow_ambiguous_resources"]=> bool(false) ["merge_compiled_includes"]=> bool(false) ["extends_recursion"]=> bool(true) ["force_cache"]=> bool(false) ["left_delimiter"]=> string(1) "{" ["right_delimiter"]=> string(1) "}" ["literals"]=> array(0) { } ["security_class"]=> string(15) "Smarty_Security" ["security_policy"]=> NULL ["php_handling"]=> int(0) ["allow_php_templates"]=> bool(false) ["debugging"]=> bool(false) ["debugging_ctrl"]=> string(4) "NONE" ["smarty_debug_id"]=> string(12) "SMARTY_DEBUG" ["debug_tpl"]=> NULL ["error_reporting"]=> NULL ["config_overwrite"]=> bool(true) ["config_booleanize"]=> bool(true) ["config_read_hidden"]=> bool(false) ["compile_locking"]=> bool(true) ["cache_locking"]=> bool(false) ["locking_timeout"]=> int(10) ["default_resource_type"]=> string(4) "file" ["caching_type"]=> string(4) "file" ["default_config_type"]=> string(4) "file" ["cache_modified_check"]=> bool(false) ["registered_plugins"]=> array(0) { } ["registered_objects"]=> array(0) { } ["registered_classes"]=> array(0) { } ["registered_filters"]=> array(0) { } ["registered_resources"]=> array(0) { } ["registered_cache_resources"]=> array(0) { } ["autoload_filters"]=> array(0) { } ["default_modifiers"]=> array(0) { } ["escape_html"]=> bool(false) ["start_time"]=> float(1539730000.3162) ["_current_file"]=> string(81) "/home/miningli/sawtech/applications/modules/default/views/templates/news/view.tpl" ["_parserdebug"]=> bool(false) ["_objType"]=> int(1) ["_debug"]=> NULL ["template_dir":protected]=> array(1) { [0]=> string(80) "/home/miningli/sawtech/settings/../applications/modules/default/views/templates/" } ["_processedTemplateDir":protected]=> array(0) { } ["config_dir":protected]=> array(1) { [0]=> string(10) "./configs/" } ["_processedConfigDir":protected]=> array(0) { } ["compile_dir":protected]=> string(41) "/home/miningli/sawtech/cache/templates_c/" ["plugins_dir":protected]=> array(1) { [0]=> string(43) "/home/miningli/sawtech/libs/Smarty/plugins/" } ["cache_dir":protected]=> string(8) "./cache/" ["obsoleteProperties":protected]=> array(8) { [0]=> string(16) "resource_caching" [1]=> string(25) "template_resource_caching" [2]=> string(22) "direct_access_security" [3]=> string(10) "_dir_perms" [4]=> string(11) "_file_perms" [5]=> string(19) "plugin_search_order" [6]=> string(35) "inheritance_merge_compiled_includes" [7]=> string(19) "resource_cache_mode" } ["accessMap":protected]=> array(5) { ["template_dir"]=> string(11) "TemplateDir" ["config_dir"]=> string(9) "ConfigDir" ["plugins_dir"]=> string(10) "PluginsDir" ["compile_dir"]=> string(10) "CompileDir" ["cache_dir"]=> string(8) "CacheDir" } ["cache_id"]=> NULL ["compile_id"]=> NULL ["caching"]=> bool(false) ["compile_check"]=> bool(true) ["cache_lifetime"]=> int(0) ["tplFunctions"]=> array(0) { } ["_cache"]=> array(2) { ["resource_handlers"]=> array(1) { ["file"]=> object(Smarty_Internal_Resource_File)#221 (3) { ["uncompiled"]=> bool(false) ["recompiled"]=> bool(false) ["hasCompiledHandler"]=> bool(false) } } ["plugin_files"]=> array(0) { } } ["template_class"]=> string(24) "Smarty_Internal_Template" ["tpl_vars"]=> array(29) { ["rootPath"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#304 (2) { ["value"]=> string(27) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/" ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["baseTitle"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#305 (2) { ["value"]=> NULL ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["arenasMenu"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#256 (2) { ["value"]=> array(2) { [0]=> array(39) { ["arenaId"]=> int(56) ["title"]=> string(13) "Indoor Arena " ["eventId"]=> int(14) ["description"]=> string(16) "

test

" ["pricePerSq"]=> float(13.8) ["arenaType"]=> string(6) "upload" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "s5k2Dshr.jpg" ["imageMobile"]=> string(12) "zJf0so5b.jpg" ["imageMedium"]=> string(12) "40lFdOne.jpg" ["spotIntersection"]=> int(0) ["widthPx"]=> float(700) ["lengthPx"]=> float(906) ["widthFt"]=> float(84) ["lengthFt"]=> float(200) ["paddingTop"]=> int(0) ["paddingRight"]=> int(0) ["paddingBottom"]=> int(0) ["paddingLeft"]=> int(0) ["sampleWidthPx"]=> float(26) ["sampleLengthPx"]=> float(28) ["sampleWidthFt"]=> float(84) ["sampleLengthFt"]=> float(200) ["sampleX"]=> float(134) ["sampleY"]=> float(78.5) ["minWidthPx"]=> float(1.66533279957) ["minLengthPx"]=> float(2.08166599947) ["minWidthFt"]=> float(8) ["minLengthFt"]=> float(10) ["sqFtPerPx"]=> float(4.80384461415) ["pxPerSqFt"]=> float(0.208166599947) ["metaTitle"]=> string(0) "" ["metaKeywords"]=> string(0) "" ["metaDescription"]=> string(0) "" ["expoContent"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaTitle"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaKeywords"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaDescription"]=> string(0) "" ["tsUpdate"]=> string(19) "2018-01-18 12:33:29" ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(39) { ["arenaId"]=> int(57) ["title"]=> string(8) "Outdoors" ["eventId"]=> int(14) ["description"]=> string(16) "

test

" ["pricePerSq"]=> float(2.5) ["arenaType"]=> string(6) "upload" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "fL5jm4Sf.jpg" ["imageMobile"]=> string(12) "YntmVE5M.jpg" ["imageMedium"]=> string(12) "T0jg9Zqm.jpg" ["spotIntersection"]=> int(0) ["widthPx"]=> float(700) ["lengthPx"]=> float(906) ["widthFt"]=> float(1200) ["lengthFt"]=> float(800) ["paddingTop"]=> int(0) ["paddingRight"]=> int(0) ["paddingBottom"]=> int(0) ["paddingLeft"]=> int(0) ["sampleWidthPx"]=> float(700) ["sampleLengthPx"]=> float(740) ["sampleWidthFt"]=> float(800) ["sampleLengthFt"]=> float(1200) ["sampleX"]=> float(0) ["sampleY"]=> float(0) ["minWidthPx"]=> float(7.34563362368) ["minLengthPx"]=> float(7.34563362368) ["minWidthFt"]=> float(10) ["minLengthFt"]=> float(10) ["sqFtPerPx"]=> float(1.36135294956) ["pxPerSqFt"]=> float(0.734563362368) ["metaTitle"]=> string(0) "" ["metaKeywords"]=> string(0) "" ["metaDescription"]=> string(0) "" ["expoContent"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaTitle"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaKeywords"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaDescription"]=> string(0) "" ["tsUpdate"]=> string(19) "2018-01-08 11:52:27" ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["topMessages"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#265 (2) { ["value"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(1) ["total"]=> int(7) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(4) { ["topMessageId"]=> int(1) ["message"]=> string(31) "RESERVE YOUR BOOTH AND SAVE 20%" ["active"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["expoId"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#279 (2) { ["value"]=> int(14) ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["promoBannerRight"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#291 (2) { ["value"]=> array(1) { ["data"]=> array(6) { [0]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(166) ["title"]=> string(11) "Career Fair" ["link"]=> string(53) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/content/url/job_fair" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "i7HfBRR5.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "9iZ2sXqr.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(162) ["title"]=> string(10) "Buy Direct" ["link"]=> string(37) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/user/promo" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "xxhDgAjD.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "Sn4OUOnO.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(161) ["title"]=> string(5) "Demos" ["link"]=> string(38) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/demos" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "oSLRTme5.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "KlhYdokt.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(163) ["title"]=> string(10) "Save Money" ["link"]=> string(37) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/user/promo" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "dNZtAyLn.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "q5iHnC1Y.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(164) ["title"]=> string(15) "Artisan Gallery" ["link"]=> string(60) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/content/url/artisan_gallery" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "EW8M5s5i.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "CBEGVFbQ.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(160) ["title"]=> string(21) "Experience the Forest" ["link"]=> string(46) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/presentations" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "vYB8ue7u.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "I7C2HeUN.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["pageURL"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#288 (2) { ["value"]=> string(47) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com:443news/view/id/6996" ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["meta"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#282 (2) { ["value"]=> array(4) { ["title"]=> string(24) "Sawtech Log Expo Website" ["description"]=> string(0) "" ["keywords"]=> string(24) "Sawtech Log Expo Website" ["cannonical"]=> string(0) "" } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["isMobile"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#281 (2) { ["value"]=> int(0) ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["header_menu"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#294 (2) { ["value"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(30) ["total"]=> int(6) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(6) { [0]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(74) ["title"]=> string(6) "Agenda" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/2018_agenda" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(0) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(0) { } } } [1]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(1) ["title"]=> string(12) "Visitor Info" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(5) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(5) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(2) ["title"]=> string(14) "About the Show" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "index/showoverview" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(5) ["title"]=> string(10) "Floor Plan" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "area/index/area/56" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(7) ["title"]=> string(23) "Hours/Prices/Directions" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(28) "index/content/url/show_hours" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(9) ["title"]=> string(13) "Accomodations" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(17) "user/accomodation" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(10) ["title"]=> string(3) "FAQ" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(3) "faq" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [2]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(11) ["title"]=> string(16) "ACTIVITIES & FUN" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(11) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(11) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(12) ["title"]=> string(17) "Pancake Breakfast" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(34) "expoactivity/networkingpage/id/269" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(13) ["title"]=> string(11) "Forest Tour" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(35) "expoactivity/techsessionpage/id/272" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(14) ["title"]=> string(15) "Artisan Gallery" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(33) "index/content/url/artisan_gallery" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(15) ["title"]=> string(8) "Job Fair" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(26) "index/content/url/job_fair" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(17) ["title"]=> string(14) "Selling Timber" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(30) "index/content/url/woodlotowner" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(67) ["title"]=> string(11) "Food Trucks" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/food_trucks" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [6]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(68) ["title"]=> string(9) "Breweries" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(27) "index/content/url/breweries" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [7]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(69) ["title"]=> string(13) "FPInnovations" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(31) "index/content/url/fpinnovations" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [8]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(71) ["title"]=> string(19) "Wood & River Tables" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(35) "index/content/url/hagenwood_courses" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [9]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(72) ["title"]=> string(11) "Maple Syrup" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(0) ["url"]=> string(23) "index/content/url/maple" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(10) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [10]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(73) ["title"]=> string(20) "What's Up With Ticks" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(23) "index/content/url/ticks" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(11) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [3]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(36) ["title"]=> string(14) "EXHIBITOR LIST" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "area/exhibitors" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(9) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(9) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(37) ["title"]=> string(3) "All" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "area/exhibitors" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(38) ["title"]=> string(11) "Agriculture" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/1" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(39) ["title"]=> string(19) "Suppliers & Support" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/2" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(40) ["title"]=> string(9) "Education" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/3" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(41) ["title"]=> string(8) "Forestry" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/4" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(42) ["title"]=> string(10) "Rural Life" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/5" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [6]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(43) ["title"]=> string(29) "Non-Timber Products & BioMass" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/6" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [7]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(44) ["title"]=> string(11) "Value Added" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/7" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [8]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(45) ["title"]=> string(8) "Woodlots" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/8" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [4]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(47) ["title"]=> string(15) "WANT TO EXHIBIT" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(7) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(7) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(48) ["title"]=> string(24) "Booth Space 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["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(51) ["title"]=> string(11) "Sponsorship" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(38) "index/content/url/sponsorship_packages" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(52) ["title"]=> string(13) "Our Marketing" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(27) "index/content/url/marketing" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(53) ["title"]=> string(10) "Prospectus" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(23) "pdf/STLE_Prospectus.pdf" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [6]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(54) ["title"]=> string(16) "Exhibitor Manual" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(16) "pdf/STLE_MAN.pdf" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [5]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(55) ["title"]=> string(10) "CONTACT US" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(25) "index/content/url/contact" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(0) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(0) { } } } } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["footer_menu"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#300 (2) { ["value"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(30) ["total"]=> int(5) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(5) { [0]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(20) ["title"]=> string(12) "GENERAL INFO" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(6) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(6) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(21) ["title"]=> string(4) "HOME" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(1) "/" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(22) ["title"]=> string(10) "EXHIBITORS" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "area/exhibitors" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(23) ["title"]=> string(10) "FLOOR PLAN" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "area/index/area/47" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(24) ["title"]=> string(15) "ARTISAN GALLERY" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(33) "index/content/url/artisan_gallery" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(25) ["title"]=> string(3) "FAQ" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(3) "faq" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(26) ["title"]=> string(14) "PRIVACY POLICY" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(31) "index/content/url/privacypolicy" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [1]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(27) ["title"]=> string(8) "VISITORS" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(3) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(3) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(28) ["title"]=> string(28) "SHOW HOURS/PRICES/DIRECTIONS" ["parentId"]=> int(27) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(28) "index/content/url/show_hours" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(29) ["title"]=> string(13) "ACCOMODATIONS" ["parentId"]=> int(27) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(17) "user/accomodation" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(30) ["title"]=> string(10) "WHY ATTEND" ["parentId"]=> int(27) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "index/whyattend" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [2]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(56) ["title"]=> string(6) "LAYOUT" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(2) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(2) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(57) ["title"]=> string(6) "INDOOR" ["parentId"]=> int(56) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "area/index/area/47" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(58) ["title"]=> string(7) "OUTDOOR" ["parentId"]=> int(56) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "area/index/area/46" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [3]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(59) ["title"]=> string(23) "I WOULD LIKE TO EXHIBIT" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(5) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(5) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(60) ["title"]=> string(18) "BOOTH AVAILABILITY" ["parentId"]=> int(59) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(57) "https://orderbooth.sawtechlogexpo.com/event/detail/id/14/" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(61) ["title"]=> string(13) "EXHIBITOR KIT" ["parentId"]=> int(59) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(43) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/pdf/STLE_MAN.pdf" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(62) ["title"]=> string(11) "WHY EXHIBIT" ["parentId"]=> int(59) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(16) "index/whyexhibit" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(63) ["title"]=> string(18) "MARKETING THE SHOW" ["parentId"]=> int(59) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(27) "index/content/url/marketing" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(64) ["title"]=> string(18) "CORPORATE SPONSORS" ["parentId"]=> int(59) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(38) "index/content/url/sponsorship_packages" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [4]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(65) ["title"]=> string(11) "INFORMATION" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(1) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(66) ["title"]=> string(11) "FULL AGENDA" ["parentId"]=> int(65) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/2018_agenda" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["logo_image"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#301 (2) { ["value"]=> array(11) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(2) ["title"]=> string(4) "Logo" ["link"]=> string(27) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "qzBvFIFe.png" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "xKr1tUQH.png" ["approved"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["dateAdded"]=> string(10) "2011-07-06" ["bannerOrder"]=> int(1) ["imageSize"]=> string(3) "460" ["place"]=> int(101) } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["current"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#176 (2) { ["value"]=> string(4) "news" ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["post"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#237 (2) { ["value"]=> array(29) { ["postId"]=> int(6996) ["postCategoryId"]=> int(0) ["title"]=> string(60) 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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?
 
"We're very pleased to have our product deployed locally for the first time," said Andrew Morden, the CEO of Corvus Energy, which produces full and hybrid lithium ion battery systems that power large and small vessels.  
 
"We've done the same thing [for ships] that Tesla's done for cars," said Morden. 
 
The company's batteries are currently being used in 35 ships across Northern Europe, and it recently received an investment from Statoil, Norway's largest offshore oil company.
 
Soon, the batteries will also be used in vessels on Canada's West Coast. SeaSpan has signed off for two hybrid cargo ferries, and Morden said BC Ferries is also considering using the technology.
 
Morden said one of the company's hybrid systems results in a 20 per cent reduction in carbon emissions.
 
That's particularly encouraging, he says, given that most large vessels are powered by diesel fuel, which produces more fine particulate matter than gasoline.
 
"In the shipping industry there's certainly been a focus on reducing emissions, because on a global scale it really does matter," said Morden. 

 
More incentives needed for change
 
Robert L. Evans, author of Fueling Our Future: an Introduction to Sustainable Energy, agrees that lithium batteries are a much cleaner energy source.

But he says just creating cleaner technology isn't enough to get industries to start using it. 
 
"The issue is the very high energy density and relatively low cost of fossil fuels," said Evans.
 
"If you don't have a price on carbon, that's where people will go. There needs some sort of incentive to move to something else."
 
Evans says there are only three sources of power in the world: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear. Currently, 80 per cent of the world's power comes from fossil fuels, he says. 
 
Diesel engines in particular are 20 to 30 per cent more efficient than gasoline, says Evans, which is why they're so often used for heavy duty industrial purposes. 
 
But he points to the car industry to show how lithium batteries could gain traction.
 
He says although cars like Tesla are too expensive for the average consumer, others like the Chevrolet Volt have started to use hybrid technology to offer consumers a more affordable and sustainable ride. 
 
Evans also calls attention to B.C.'s carbon tax, which he says has been effective in reducing emissions. 
 
"If you send a strong enough price signal to industry, they will start looking for other alternatives," he said. 
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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?

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SUDBURY, ONT.—In a hot, dark cavern buried two kilometres below the earth’s surface, a pallet of No Name dog food lies covered in dust.
 
These subterranean passageways have certainly seen stranger sights than bulk dog food. There was the one-of-a-kind sanding robot, for starters. There was the giant acrylic orb, split in two pieces to fit down the mine’s narrow elevator shaft. Over the next four weeks, there will be 3.6 tonnes of liquid argon.
 
Every day, a parade of physicists in coveralls and head lamps rattles down the elevator and tramps through these passages — plus engineers, welders, machinists, grad students, the occasional journalist. Stephen Hawking was here.
 
But to grasp the scale and ambition of what’s happening at SNOLAB, it helps to think about that pallet of dog food.
 
The scientists down here are building a massive experiment, DEAP-3600, designed to capture faint signals from dark matter, one of the greatest unresolved mysteries in physics. Whatever dark matter is, it accounts for the vast majority of the matter in the universe. Physicists have described the ordinary, visible matter we know — galaxies, comets, planets, us — as the froth on top of a deep, dark ocean. But we don’t know what that ocean is made of. Dark matter is invisible: its existence is inferred, never seen.
 
At SNOLAB, scientists want to change that. They are building the world’s most sensitive dark matter detector of its kind, going to painstaking lengths — burying the lab in an ore mine in Sudbury, for instance — to avoid anything that might mask a signal.
 
An experiment of this scale is a scientific feat involving 65 researchers at 10 institutions in three countries. It is also a logistical nightmare.
 
“We’re pushing right at the edge of technical capabilities of different scientific techniques,” says Mark Boulay, an experimental particle astrophysicist at Carleton and Queen’s universities and project director for DEAP. “But we’re also building a large construction project.”
 
On top of the behaviour of subatomic particles, Boulay and his DEAP collaborators must contend with Ministry of Labour approvals, missing wrenches, and budgets, budgets, budgets. Someone at SNOLAB must maintain that large supply of dog food. The lab hosts dozens of workers daily, but usually not enough to satisfy the microbes that keep the sewer treatment plant functional. Dog food supplements the microbes’ diet.
 
These prosaic demands can seem jarring in contrast to the lab’s and the experiment’s ambitions. On Thursday, Queen’s University physicist Arthur McDonald will accept a Nobel Prize for his work on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). SNO was the precursor to the expanded SNOLAB, where 10 experiments are now underway in addition to DEAP. Boulay was part of the SNO team; DEAP is the inheritance of the expertise accumulated as a direct result of its success.
 
“Certainly with the facility we have at SNOLAB, and all the expertise we have built up in Canada in particle astrophysics, we are at the leading edge of the field. What we are doing is of that calibre,” says Boulay. “We have excellent potential for discovery and for scientific impact, and we are right around the corner from turning on.”
 
But experimental particle physics is big, high-stakes science. Other ambitious dark matter detectors have found nothing, which is helpful for defining where to look next, but not the result researchers dream about. If theorists’ current best guess for what dark matter is made of is wrong, DEAP won’t find anything either.
 
Then again, if the theorists are right, the world’s best shot at discovering dark matter may be sitting in an ore mine in Sudbury.

 
WIMPs that go bump in the night
 
To get to work every day, SNOLAB scientists and staff perform what is surely one of the world’s strangest commutes.
 
Usually before dawn, they arrive at Creighton Mine, a half-hour drive west of downtown Sudbury. Creighton is an active ore mine owned by Vale (formerly Inco). Vale allows the scientists to piggyback on its existing infrastructure, a critical resource: without it, operating the lab would cost millions more. At Creighton, the scientists and staff suit up in mining gear: coveralls, head lamps, safety belts.
 
They cram shoulder to shoulder with miners in “the cage,” an open-sided elevator. After a rat-a-tat Morse code-like message to the operator below, the cage starts to plummet down the mine shaft. It will descend two kilometres — almost four times the length of the CN tower — so quickly that newbies are advised to chew gum.
 
At the second-deepest stop, the SNOLAB scientists are released into “the drift,” a dark, dust-flecked tunnel. The ambient temperature in the drift is 42 C — ventilation lowers it — and the air pressure is 20 per cent higher than at surface, a combination of effects that can leave a first-timer feeling slightly strange. The ground is muddy and criss-crossed by railcar tracks.
 
After trudging 1.4 kilometres through the drift, the crew arrives at a door and a wall of hoses hammered into the rock: the boot wash station. “Welcome to SNOLAB,” a banner declares. “Your cleanliness journey begins here!” The banner marks a transition in this commute: the switch between the dirty first half and the even more convoluted, clean second half.
 
Why bury a physics lab in an operational ore mine? Because every minute on the Earth’s surface, thousands of super-high-energy particles from outer space bombard your body. This is not a tinfoil-hat conspiracy. It is a basic fact of physics.
 
These “cosmic rays” were great for mid-century scientists, who measured them to discover subatomic particles. They are harmless for the rest of us, part of the background radiation we absorb daily. They are ruinous for a dark matter detector.
 
DEAP relies on picking up incredibly faint interactions — if they are happening at all — between dark matter and the 3.6 tonnes of liquid argon trapped inside an acrylic vessel at its core. Again, physicists have no idea what dark matter is made of. But the most popular candidate is a hypothetical particle known as a WIMP, for weakly interacting massive particle. The SNOLAB scientists are hoping to see a WIMP bump into the nucleus of an argon atom, emitting a pulse of light that the detector can capture.
 
Above ground, cosmic rays would ping the argon incessantly, overwhelming the dark matter interactions scientists are looking for. Burying the lab in a mine underneath 2,070 metres of norite rock substantially reduces this problem: a dozen or fewer particles will make it through the rock every month. But cosmic rays are not the only type of radiation that keeps Boulay up at night, not even close.
 
The potassium in human sweat is slightly radioactive; half a dozen fingerprints would jeopardize the experiment. But the “worst enemy” of detectors is radon, a radioactive gas that is the decay product of uranium and thorium. Radon is found naturally in all kinds of environments, including soil, rock and air. It can reach levels dangerous to human health if it becomes trapped in an enclosed space, like a well-sealed basement. Radon is found in particularly high dosages in mines.
 
You can probably anticipate the irony here. A crucial part of what will make DEAP the most sensitive dark matter detector of its kind is its ultra-clean environment: the scientists’ ability to mute background noise, or unwanted interactions. Burying the lab in an ore mine accomplishes that in part. But burying the lab in an ore mine also makes the risk of exposure to other types of radiation substantially worse.
 
“You can think of the mine down here as sort of the deepest, darkest, most well-sealed basement — the worst place ever for radon,” says Boulay.
 
To reduce contamination from the mine, everything that enters SNOLAB — including the people — follows a strict routine belied by the cheery tone of the boot wash station banner.

 
No detail is ‘trivial’
 
In matching blue onesies and white helmets, the staff of SNOLAB sometimes resembles a diligent Smurf colony.
 
The outfits are part of a stringent cleanliness protocol that begins after entering SNOLAB from the drift, including showering, changing into a laundered set of clothing that never leaves the facility, and donning hairnets and a clean helmet.
 
Everything else that enters SNOLAB is run through a room called the “car wash,” which is exactly what it sounds like. Inside SNOLAB, the walls are covered in four inches of shotcrete and painted with a glossy, easily washable material; sticky, dust-trapping mats lie underfoot.
 
“Every single surface has been cleaned by hand,” says Nigel Smith, SNOLAB’s director. “Every nut and bolt and piece of steel or bracket gets washed and cleaned before it comes into the lab.”
 
If this sounds exacting, it’s nothing compared to the rigour with which the scientists select materials that make up DEAP.
 
“People in our field do some really mad stuff, generally, to find low-background materials,” says Smith. “There’s no point coming all the way down here and shielding your detector and then putting a radioactive component into (it).”
 
The plumbing system that will draw the argon into the acrylic vessel at the detector’s core is made of electro-polished stainless steel, a process that involves submerging the steel in a vat of acid and running an electrical current through it. Electro-polishing removes a thin layer of surface material, making the steel incredibly smooth and easy to clean.
 
The argon itself will be purged of radon through a custom-built, low-radioactivity charcoal filter. Arthur McDonald is leading DEAP’s search for purer forms of argon, and is collaborating with a U.S. group that — for the benefit of obsessive experimental physicists — is hunting for argon from deep underground sources, which contain less of a troublesome isotope produced via interactions with cosmic rays. This ultra-pure argon will be used in later runs of the experiment, boosting the detector’s sensitivity.
 
From experience with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, the team already knew that acrylic is an exceptionally clean material. It is usually used in environments where it needs to be visibly clear: the primary business of one company SNOLAB works with is fabricating massive tanks for aquariums and zoos. The vessel fabricated for DEAP, the team claims, is made of the cleanest acrylic ever manufactured.
 
DEAP collaborators travelled to the facility in Thailand where the acrylic panels were cast to scrutinize the process: mixing a monomer slurry, pouring it into moulds, and letting it cure. Special air filters were installed in the factory, and the transport trucks followed a strict protocol. Afterward, the 11-centimetre-thick panels were shipped to Colorado, where they were heated and bent into five orange-slice-shaped sections and bonded together. The vessel was machined by DEAP collaborators at the University of Alberta and then transported to Creighton, where it was slung below the cage — it was too big to fit inside — and carefully lowered down.
 
That wasn’t enough trouble for the team: Queen’s engineers and scientists spent five years designing and building a resurfacing robot to shave approximately a millimetre of acrylic from the inner surface of the vessel, which may have been contaminated with radon simply from being exposed to air. The robot used diamond sanding pads that were chosen like many other detector materials: by testing a dozen choices in a radon assay system and selecting the one with the lowest levels. After sanding, the interior was flushed with tonne after tonne of ultra-pure water (kind of like tooth polishing, as a DEAP team member suggested).
 
“We are trying to build some of the lowest-radiation environments in the universe,” Smith says. This is what makes DEAP 20 times more sensitive than the next best dark matter detector.
 
These science concerns are always compounded by logistical ones. Boulay’s most frequently used expression is “non-trivial,” and he applies it to many things. Removing the sanding robot from the interior of the acrylic vessel? Non-trivial. It involved installing an extraction canister, which involved operating a lifting device, which involved waiting for an approval, one of the many delays DEAP has experienced (though it is not as far behind schedule as SNO was).
 
“Doing things that haven’t been done before is not trivial,” Boulay says. “We’re doing them at a very large scale, and we’re doing them underground, which complicates things enormously.”
 
“It’s critical because if we drop it, we’re screwed,” Smith said three months earlier, explaining why the entire DEAP team was in meetings on the surface. (He quickly clarified that “critical” technically means lifting something close to the maximum capacity of the hoist.)
 
By the time of the lift, the vessel and its frame weighed 30,000 pounds. It was covered in hardware, including 255 photomultipliers, which collect the light generated by a dark matter event. A team member who laid his hands on it to check a load sensor looked as though he was trying to perform a religious miracle. But after months of meetings and two four-inch-thick binders of plans, the critical lift was a success. The vessel now hangs in an eight-metre-wide tank of ultra-pure water, its final protective shield.
 
The team will spend the next several weeks running calibrations that, when the detector begins to collect data early next year, will help them differentiate between false events and real dark matter detections. Despite the DEAP team’s incredible diligence, the detector will still be drowned in a cacophony of noise: in a single year, it might register a dozen dark matter detections compared to a billion background events.
 
But if Boulay and his collaborators see what they are looking for, it will be the resolution of a tantalizing cosmic mystery.

 
Deep dark secrets
 
Dark matter is just the latest insult to the notion that humans and our tiny blue planet are central to the universe, as Ken Freeman and Geoff McNamara write in their book In Search of Dark Matter.
 
Copernicus showed that the sun, not the Earth, is the centre of our solar system. Galileo discovered that our sun is just one among many in the Milky Way. Edwin Hubble saw that the Milky Way was not the entirety of the universe but one galaxy among many.
 
Now, we know that everything we are made of and everything we can see — visible matter; matter that interacts with the electromagnetic force and therefore reflects, absorbs and emits light — is an insignificant fraction of the mass in the universe, less than 5 per cent.
 
Dark matter accounts for 26 per cent of everything in the universe. The rest is dark energy, an even more mysterious phenomenon.
 
Astronomers first began stumbling against dark matter in the 1930s. Fritz Zwicky, a Swiss-born astronomer working in California, is known today as both an underappreciated genius and an irascible oddball (he reportedly referred to his many academic enemies as “spherical bastards,” because they were bastards viewed from any angle). Zwicky hypothesized the existence of dark matter when he noticed that galaxies in the distant Coma Cluster were spinning far too quickly considering how much they weighed. His unpopularity may have been part of the reason his ideas didn’t gain widespread acceptance before his death in 1974.
 
But Rubin and Ford didn’t observe that. The outer stars were spinning as quickly as the interior stars, and sometimes faster. They concluded that the galaxies must be surrounded by a halo of matter they could not see.
 
Theorists have postulated many candidates for what dark matter might be. But the most widely accepted hypothesis is the WIMP, a particle that interacts with gravity but not light, hence its invisibility to us.
 
Neither WIMPs nor any other particle that could successfully explain dark matter exist in the standard model of particle physics, the theoretical framework that has successfully predicted nearly all the phenomena in the universe.
 
Directly observing a WIMP interaction would not be the first advance in physics “beyond the standard model”: the discovery that neutrinos oscillate, for which Arthur McDonald co-won the Nobel Prize, showed that the standard model cannot be complete.
 
But observing dark matter would open up a new chapter in physics. It would almost certainly earn another Nobel Prize for SNOLAB — or whoever finds it first. Other detectors are running or underway, including one inside a mountain in Italy that has similar sensitivities to DEAP but is scheduled to turn on later and uses xenon. Experiments are ongoing at the Large Hadron Collider and aboard the International Space Station.
 
Asked whether he would be disappointed if DEAP did not detect dark matter, project director Mark Boulay hesitates, then sighs, then laughs. “Having the detector operate as designed would be an accomplishment,” he says. “It’s still a real scientific result, whether or not we see it.”
 
When the Nobel physics prize was announced on Oct. 6, McDonald was predictably deluged with phone calls. In a late afternoon interview with the Star, he was exhausted. But he perked up when the subject turned to DEAP.
 
The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory had given Canada one “eureka” moment, he said, and the DEAP team is hopeful it can provide another one.
 
“The big thing, though,” he added, “is that our students have the idea that they can make a difference in terms of really changing the way we look at things in a fundamental way in physics, and they can do it here in Canada.”

 
Expensive science
 
$65 million Cost of expanding SNO into SNOLAB, completed in 2011
 
$8 million SNOLAB’s annual operating cost
 
$20 million Cost of constructing DEAP, to date
 
10 Number of institutions collaborating on DEAP: in Canada, Carleton University, Queen’s University, TRIUMF, SNOLAB, University of Alberta and Laurentian University; in the U.K., Royal Holloway (University of London), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and University of Sussex; and National Autonomous University of Mexico.
 
SNOLAB construction funding Provided by Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), Ontario Innovation trust, Northern Ontario Heritage Fund, and FedNor.
 
SNOLAB operational funding Provided by Ontario Research Fund’s Research Excellence Program, NSERC, CFI and member institutions. Vale provides in-kind funding. The city of Sudbury has provided a five-year grant for public education.
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SUDBURY, ONT.—In a hot, dark cavern buried two kilometres below the earth’s surface, a pallet of No Name dog food lies covered in dust.

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Michael Gravelle took another pummelling last week over the state of the province’s slumping mining sector, but he was right to point out that metal prices are in a deep trough, even if that explanation is beginning to sound a little lame.
 
Among other things, the veteran Northern Development and Mines minister was taken to task by Auditor-General Bonnie Lysyk for not doing enough to buck-up investment in this province’s mining industry.
 
Ontario’s chamber of commerce has been hammering on this point, too, although the ministry partially responded just before Lysyk’s report came out by pledging to make it easier for prospectors and junior companies to register claims. Instead of physically driving stakes into the ground, they can fire up a computer and access a new electronic grid.
 
According to Lysyk’s report, Ontario is sorely lagging behind other provinces in terms of investment promotion, even though this province remains home to the majority of the country’s mines.
 
But metal prices are the key driver, and they always will be, even when Gravelle gets dumped on.
 
Despite the gloomy forecast for the Ring of Fire, several gold-mining projects continue to advance in other parts of Northwestern Ontario — very likely because gold’s value has remained above US $1,000 per ounce.
 
Earlier this year, a Toronto exploration company began the expensive job of going underground to firm up a potential new gold deposit just north of White River.
 
It’s easy to forget just how close Cliffs Natural Resources came to going forward with its plan to build the first chromite mine in the RoF, about 550 kilometres northeast of Thunder Bay.
 
Cliffs spent a sizable $500 million on pre-development work, while the province, on Gravelle’s watch, agreed to pay half of the cost of a $600-million north-south access road that Cliffs required. (That’s another thing that’s easy to forget when Gravelle is being dumped on.)
 
When metal prices started to fall two years ago, and investors began to notice that many Chinese infrastructure projects fuelling the demand for Canadian minerals had been over-built, Cliffs and other major companies were forced to pull up stakes and downsize.
 
That’s out of Gravelle’s control, despite what his critics might imply. But one thing the province can continue working on in the absence of big players like Cliffs is an RoF access road.
 
It was suggested again last week that this might actually happen, now that a like-minded Liberal government is ensconced in Ottawa. Surely it’s of national concern that Ontario remains the only Canadian Shield province without an all-weather road into its far north.
 
If that changes before Gravelle’s term as mines minister is up, he’ll have really accomplished something.
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Michael Gravelle took another pummelling last week over the state of the province’s slumping mining sector, but he was right to point out that metal prices are in a deep trough, even if that explanation is beginning to sound a little lame.

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Northern Development and Mines Minister Michael Gravelle said Ontario’s new mineral development strategy will tackle all the issues and concerns raised in the provincial auditor general’s report.
A harsh critique of the effectiveness of Ontario’s mines and mineral program by provincial auditor general Bonnie Lysyk was greeted with enthusiasm by the minister of Northern Development and Mines.
 
“I’m not exaggerating when I say I’m grateful for her recommendations,” said Michael Gravelle.
 
Gravelle expressed surprise that Lysyk’s annual report could be viewed as a scathing review of his ministry that appears to have shortfalls in encouraging mining investment, has disengaged in First Nation-industry consultation, shown no evidence of advancing the Ring of Fire, and lacks the resources and technical expertise to oversee mine closure plans and inspect abandoned mines.
 
“It’s funny I just don’t read it that way. I do not interpret it that way. When I look at the recommendations regarding abandoned mines, regarding our closure plans, they are all things that we take very seriously regardless.”
 
Gravelle said all of the issues raised in the report are “total priorities for us, and in that regard her recommendations strengthen our operations, our direction, and our goals. That’s why I’m pleased.”
 
Many of those issues, he said, will be addressed shortly when the government rolls out its new mineral development strategy, last updated in 2006. That could come as early as Dec. 11 when Gravelle attends a Northern Ontario Heritage Fund board meeting in Sudbury, but he refused to confirm that and dropped no hints on the contents of the strategy.
 
“The bottom line is we are more than listening to what the auditor general has to say and are taking it very seriously.”
 
In her report, Lysyk wrote five years after the creation of a 19-member Ring of Fire Secretariat, there is no evidence of a “detailed plan or timeline for developing the region,” noting the government-created entity has constantly missed development milestones established by the province.
 
A Ring of Fire Development Corporation, established in 2014, remains non-operational with a board of directors consisting of five senior bureaucrats that has not engaged industry, First Nation leadership, or the federal government.
 
Gravelle staunchly defended the Secretariat and the development corporation saying he’s “very proud” and “grateful” for their work in building partnerships and overseeing the technical studies on the transportation infrastructure.
 
Gravelle met with Lysyk for an hour prior to the release of the report. While he didn’t agree with all of her findings, he didn’t dispute them.
 
The minister explained the challenges of imposing timelines on a major mineral project when commodity prices are soft, securing exploration financing is difficult, complex socio-economic and resource revenue-sharing negotiations with the Matawa First Nations – the group of communities closest to the Ring of Fire – remain ongoing, and the relationship with the previous federal government “wasn’t the best.”
 
Queen’s Park has been waiting on Ottawa to provide $1 billion in matching provincial dollars to extend infrastructure to the Far North mineral deposits. To date, no construction dollars have been spent on mining infrastructure.
 
Gravelle said he expects to formally meet with new federal natural resources Jim Carr early in 2016 to discuss the Ring of Fire. While he’s “never been more optimistic” about firming up a better working relationship with Ottawa, he offered no date when federal infrastructure dollars are expected.
 
The auditor general also point out that the “lack of clarity” in Ontario’s regulations on the duty to consult with First Nations has stymied mining investment.
 
The report said Ontario has delegated more aspects of the Aboriginal consultation process over to the mining industry than its counterparts in British Columbia, Quebec and Manitoba.
 
Gravelle didn’t provide any indication his ministry will begin to take more of a lead role in managing the process. The Ontario introduced the exploration plans and permits process in 2013, requiring prospectors and junior mining to engage with First Nations at the earliest stage of exploration.
 
“When you look at the successful stories of mining projects moving forward that’s the way they end up being successful,” he said.
 
He denied the ministry has been hands-off in the process, but is “directly engaged on a daily basis on consultations with First Nations,” further adding that he’s personally gotten involved in discussions and negotiations between First Nations and companies.
 
“The point I’ve taken in the past….is that it makes sense from a First Nation point of view and industry point of view for us to encourage them to get together.”
 
Ontario Prospectors Association executive director Garry Clark is all for the province taking back the reins of Aboriginal consultation.
 
“Other provinces are further ahead of us on the consultation pieces. Consultation being driven by the ministry is important, nation to nation, instead of trying to piecemeal it with a bunch of geologists and prospectors.
 
“I think they’ve (government) taken note that this isn’t quite worked as well as they thought it would, and are making some changes.”
 
He hasn’t viewed a final draft of the province’s upcoming mineral strategy, but feels confident his association has “plated out all the issues” to a receptive ministry staff.
 
Ontario’s mining sector comprises almost a quarter of Canada’s total mineral production, valued at almost $11 billion in 2014. But exploration spending has tanked from a high of more than $1 billion in 2011 to $507 million in 2014. The number of active mining claims in 2014 was 235,000 units, a decline from 363,000 units in 2008.
 
The auditor determined the ministry “has not been effective in encouraging timely mineral development in the province.”
 
Clark can’t say for certain that the ministry is to blame when the entire industry is in a global slump.
 
“Our business is so slow right it’s unbelievable.”
 
Some companies have left Ontario, but new ones have arrived to explore the province’s world-class deposits, mentioning gold projects at Borden Lake, expansion at Lake Shore Gold, a slew of mergers in the industry.
 
He said much of the work of the Ring of Fire Secretariat doesn’t the industry as a whole – even though it’s a high-profile project – since exploration is at a standstill, but the Secretariat’s work in transferring training dollars and educating First Nations “to better understand mining is a good thing.”
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A harsh critique of the effectiveness of Ontario’s mines and mineral program by provincial auditor general Bonnie Lysyk was greeted with enthusiasm by the minister of Northern Development and Mines.

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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?
 
"We're very pleased to have our product deployed locally for the first time," said Andrew Morden, the CEO of Corvus Energy, which produces full and hybrid lithium ion battery systems that power large and small vessels.  
 
"We've done the same thing [for ships] that Tesla's done for cars," said Morden. 
 
The company's batteries are currently being used in 35 ships across Northern Europe, and it recently received an investment from Statoil, Norway's largest offshore oil company.
 
Soon, the batteries will also be used in vessels on Canada's West Coast. SeaSpan has signed off for two hybrid cargo ferries, and Morden said BC Ferries is also considering using the technology.
 
Morden said one of the company's hybrid systems results in a 20 per cent reduction in carbon emissions.
 
That's particularly encouraging, he says, given that most large vessels are powered by diesel fuel, which produces more fine particulate matter than gasoline.
 
"In the shipping industry there's certainly been a focus on reducing emissions, because on a global scale it really does matter," said Morden. 

 
More incentives needed for change
 
Robert L. Evans, author of Fueling Our Future: an Introduction to Sustainable Energy, agrees that lithium batteries are a much cleaner energy source.

But he says just creating cleaner technology isn't enough to get industries to start using it. 
 
"The issue is the very high energy density and relatively low cost of fossil fuels," said Evans.
 
"If you don't have a price on carbon, that's where people will go. There needs some sort of incentive to move to something else."
 
Evans says there are only three sources of power in the world: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear. Currently, 80 per cent of the world's power comes from fossil fuels, he says. 
 
Diesel engines in particular are 20 to 30 per cent more efficient than gasoline, says Evans, which is why they're so often used for heavy duty industrial purposes. 
 
But he points to the car industry to show how lithium batteries could gain traction.
 
He says although cars like Tesla are too expensive for the average consumer, others like the Chevrolet Volt have started to use hybrid technology to offer consumers a more affordable and sustainable ride. 
 
Evans also calls attention to B.C.'s carbon tax, which he says has been effective in reducing emissions. 
 
"If you send a strong enough price signal to industry, they will start looking for other alternatives," he said. 
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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?

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The Statue of Justice oversees the Vancouver Law Courts.

VANCOUVER - Seven protesters hurt outside a Guatemalan mine owned by a company registered in British Columbia must file their lawsuit in the Central American country, a judge has ruled.
 
The men launched a civil claim in B.C. Supreme Court against Tahoe Resources Inc. (TSX: THO) after security guards sprayed protesters with rubber bullets outside the Escobal Mine in 2013.
 
The Guatemalan citizens had argued the case should be heard in B.C. because they had no faith that their country's legal system would hold the company accountable.
 
But Tahoe asked the court to decline jurisdiction and stay the lawsuit, and Justice Laura Gerow agreed with the company.
 
"It is apparent that trying this action in British Columbia will result in considerably greater inconvenience and expenses for the parties and dozens of witnesses," she said in a written decision.
 
She noted that translators would be required for all the Spanish-speaking plaintiffs, and evidence and witnesses would have to be transported from Guatemala and Tahoe's U.S. offices.
 
Tahoe is incorporated in B.C. but its headquarters and majority of its staff are in Reno, Nev. It is the parent company to Guatemalan-based Minera San Rafael, which owns the mine.
 
The judge ruled that Guatemala is clearly the more appropriate forum for the suit. She said the country's legal system is "imperfect" but functional.
 
"In my view, the public interest requires that Canadian courts proceed extremely cautiously in finding that a foreign court is incapable of providing justice to its own citizens," the decision said.
 
"To hold otherwise is to ignore the principle of comity and risk that other jurisdictions will treat the Canadian judicial system with similar disregard."
 
A criminal case is already underway in Guatemala against the security manager who allegedly ordered the shooting. The plaintiffs are seeking compensation for their injuries as part of that case.
 
The incident unfolded on April 27, 2013, when guards attempted to disperse protesters gathered outside the silver, gold, lead and zinc mine under construction.
 
Adolfo Garcia claimed a projectile lodged in his spine when he was shot in the back, while Luis Monroy said his sense of smell was destroyed when he was shot in the face.
 
The other plaintiffs, ranging in age from 17 to 40, are farmers and students who claimed projectiles hit them in the legs, knee and foot. They alleged shotguns, pepper spray and buck shot were also used.
 
The suit claimed Tahoe was liable for either authorizing the use of excessive force or negligence for not preventing the violence.
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VANCOUVER - Seven protesters hurt outside a Guatemalan mine owned by a company registered in British Columbia must file their lawsuit in the Central American country, a judge has ruled.

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Employee qualifications, knowledge and experience are the basis for a successful maintenance organization. We offer an extensive series of qualification seminars and user trainings for vibration diagnosis. 
 
• Certified vibration seminars in accordance with ISO Standard 18436-2 (Category I - III)
• Certified user trainings for the VIBGUARD Condition Monitoring System
• Specific user trainings.
 
In the field of industrial maintenance, there is an increasing demand for certified vibration experts. In some industries, a certification is even required by national and international regulations.


Dynamics simulator 1

What effects natural frequency? - See our Dynamics Simulator
Jason Tranter demonstrates the iTeachDynamics simulator. iTeachDynamics demonstrates how mass, stiffness and damping affect natural frequency. Please click the screen to see the video. Please be patient, the video may take a few seconds to load on slower connections.


Click screen to run the simulator 


Dynamics simulator 2

What effects the dynamics of a shaft? - See our Dynamics Simulator
Jason Tranter demonstrates the Shaft (rotor) version of the iTeachResonance simulator. This program demonstrates how mass, stiffness and damping affect the dynamics of a shaft.
 
Please click the screen to see the video. Please be patient, the video may take a few seconds to load on slower connections.


Click screen to run the simulator 
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Employee qualifications, knowledge and experience are the basis for a successful maintenance organization. We offer an extensive series of qualification seminars and user trainings for vibration diagnosis. 

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test

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test

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["promoBannerId"]=> int(162) ["title"]=> string(10) "Buy Direct" ["link"]=> string(37) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/user/promo" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "xxhDgAjD.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "Sn4OUOnO.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(161) ["title"]=> string(5) "Demos" ["link"]=> string(38) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/demos" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "oSLRTme5.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "KlhYdokt.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(163) ["title"]=> string(10) "Save Money" ["link"]=> string(37) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/user/promo" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "dNZtAyLn.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "q5iHnC1Y.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(164) ["title"]=> string(15) "Artisan Gallery" ["link"]=> string(60) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/content/url/artisan_gallery" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "EW8M5s5i.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "CBEGVFbQ.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(160) ["title"]=> string(21) "Experience the Forest" ["link"]=> string(46) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/presentations" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "vYB8ue7u.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "I7C2HeUN.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["pageURL"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#288 (2) { ["value"]=> string(47) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com:443news/view/id/6996" ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["meta"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#282 (2) { ["value"]=> array(4) { ["title"]=> string(24) "Sawtech Log Expo Website" ["description"]=> string(0) "" ["keywords"]=> string(24) "Sawtech Log Expo Website" ["cannonical"]=> string(0) "" } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["isMobile"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#281 (2) { ["value"]=> int(0) ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["header_menu"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#294 (2) { ["value"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(30) ["total"]=> int(6) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(6) { [0]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(74) ["title"]=> string(6) "Agenda" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/2018_agenda" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(0) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(0) { } } } [1]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(1) ["title"]=> string(12) "Visitor Info" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(5) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(5) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(2) ["title"]=> string(14) "About the Show" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "index/showoverview" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(5) ["title"]=> string(10) "Floor Plan" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "area/index/area/56" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(7) ["title"]=> string(23) "Hours/Prices/Directions" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(28) "index/content/url/show_hours" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(9) ["title"]=> string(13) "Accomodations" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(17) "user/accomodation" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(10) ["title"]=> string(3) "FAQ" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(3) "faq" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [2]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(11) ["title"]=> string(16) "ACTIVITIES & FUN" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(11) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(11) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(12) ["title"]=> string(17) "Pancake Breakfast" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(34) "expoactivity/networkingpage/id/269" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(13) ["title"]=> string(11) "Forest Tour" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(35) "expoactivity/techsessionpage/id/272" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(14) ["title"]=> string(15) "Artisan Gallery" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(33) "index/content/url/artisan_gallery" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(15) ["title"]=> string(8) "Job Fair" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(26) "index/content/url/job_fair" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(17) ["title"]=> string(14) "Selling Timber" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(30) "index/content/url/woodlotowner" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(67) ["title"]=> string(11) "Food Trucks" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/food_trucks" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [6]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(68) ["title"]=> string(9) "Breweries" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(27) "index/content/url/breweries" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [7]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(69) ["title"]=> string(13) "FPInnovations" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(31) "index/content/url/fpinnovations" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [8]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(71) ["title"]=> string(19) "Wood & River Tables" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(35) "index/content/url/hagenwood_courses" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [9]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(72) ["title"]=> string(11) "Maple Syrup" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(0) ["url"]=> string(23) "index/content/url/maple" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(10) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [10]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(73) ["title"]=> string(20) "What's Up With Ticks" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(23) "index/content/url/ticks" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(11) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [3]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(36) ["title"]=> string(14) "EXHIBITOR LIST" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "area/exhibitors" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(9) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(9) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(37) ["title"]=> string(3) "All" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "area/exhibitors" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(38) ["title"]=> string(11) "Agriculture" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/1" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(39) ["title"]=> string(19) "Suppliers & Support" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/2" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(40) ["title"]=> string(9) "Education" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/3" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(41) ["title"]=> string(8) "Forestry" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/4" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(42) ["title"]=> string(10) "Rural Life" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/5" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [6]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(43) ["title"]=> string(29) "Non-Timber Products & BioMass" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/6" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [7]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(44) ["title"]=> string(11) "Value Added" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/7" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [8]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(45) ["title"]=> string(8) "Woodlots" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/8" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [4]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(47) ["title"]=> string(15) "WANT TO EXHIBIT" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(7) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(7) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(48) ["title"]=> string(24) "Booth Space Availability" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(56) "https://orderbooth.sawtechlogexpo.com/event/detail/id/14" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(49) ["title"]=> string(19) "Artisan Why Exhibit" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(37) "index/content/url/artisan_why_exhibit" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(50) ["title"]=> string(11) "Why Exhibit" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/why_exhibit" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(51) ["title"]=> string(11) "Sponsorship" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(38) "index/content/url/sponsorship_packages" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(52) ["title"]=> string(13) "Our Marketing" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(27) "index/content/url/marketing" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(53) ["title"]=> string(10) "Prospectus" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(23) "pdf/STLE_Prospectus.pdf" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [6]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(54) ["title"]=> string(16) "Exhibitor Manual" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(16) "pdf/STLE_MAN.pdf" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [5]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(55) ["title"]=> string(10) "CONTACT US" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(25) "index/content/url/contact" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(0) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(0) { } } } } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["footer_menu"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#300 (2) { ["value"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(30) ["total"]=> int(5) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(5) { [0]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(20) ["title"]=> string(12) "GENERAL INFO" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(6) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(6) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(21) ["title"]=> string(4) "HOME" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(1) "/" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(22) ["title"]=> string(10) "EXHIBITORS" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) 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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?
 
"We're very pleased to have our product deployed locally for the first time," said Andrew Morden, the CEO of Corvus Energy, which produces full and hybrid lithium ion battery systems that power large and small vessels.  
 
"We've done the same thing [for ships] that Tesla's done for cars," said Morden. 
 
The company's batteries are currently being used in 35 ships across Northern Europe, and it recently received an investment from Statoil, Norway's largest offshore oil company.
 
Soon, the batteries will also be used in vessels on Canada's West Coast. SeaSpan has signed off for two hybrid cargo ferries, and Morden said BC Ferries is also considering using the technology.
 
Morden said one of the company's hybrid systems results in a 20 per cent reduction in carbon emissions.
 
That's particularly encouraging, he says, given that most large vessels are powered by diesel fuel, which produces more fine particulate matter than gasoline.
 
"In the shipping industry there's certainly been a focus on reducing emissions, because on a global scale it really does matter," said Morden. 

 
More incentives needed for change
 
Robert L. Evans, author of Fueling Our Future: an Introduction to Sustainable Energy, agrees that lithium batteries are a much cleaner energy source.

But he says just creating cleaner technology isn't enough to get industries to start using it. 
 
"The issue is the very high energy density and relatively low cost of fossil fuels," said Evans.
 
"If you don't have a price on carbon, that's where people will go. There needs some sort of incentive to move to something else."
 
Evans says there are only three sources of power in the world: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear. Currently, 80 per cent of the world's power comes from fossil fuels, he says. 
 
Diesel engines in particular are 20 to 30 per cent more efficient than gasoline, says Evans, which is why they're so often used for heavy duty industrial purposes. 
 
But he points to the car industry to show how lithium batteries could gain traction.
 
He says although cars like Tesla are too expensive for the average consumer, others like the Chevrolet Volt have started to use hybrid technology to offer consumers a more affordable and sustainable ride. 
 
Evans also calls attention to B.C.'s carbon tax, which he says has been effective in reducing emissions. 
 
"If you send a strong enough price signal to industry, they will start looking for other alternatives," he said. 
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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?

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SUDBURY, ONT.—In a hot, dark cavern buried two kilometres below the earth’s surface, a pallet of No Name dog food lies covered in dust.
 
These subterranean passageways have certainly seen stranger sights than bulk dog food. There was the one-of-a-kind sanding robot, for starters. There was the giant acrylic orb, split in two pieces to fit down the mine’s narrow elevator shaft. Over the next four weeks, there will be 3.6 tonnes of liquid argon.
 
Every day, a parade of physicists in coveralls and head lamps rattles down the elevator and tramps through these passages — plus engineers, welders, machinists, grad students, the occasional journalist. Stephen Hawking was here.
 
But to grasp the scale and ambition of what’s happening at SNOLAB, it helps to think about that pallet of dog food.
 
The scientists down here are building a massive experiment, DEAP-3600, designed to capture faint signals from dark matter, one of the greatest unresolved mysteries in physics. Whatever dark matter is, it accounts for the vast majority of the matter in the universe. Physicists have described the ordinary, visible matter we know — galaxies, comets, planets, us — as the froth on top of a deep, dark ocean. But we don’t know what that ocean is made of. Dark matter is invisible: its existence is inferred, never seen.
 
At SNOLAB, scientists want to change that. They are building the world’s most sensitive dark matter detector of its kind, going to painstaking lengths — burying the lab in an ore mine in Sudbury, for instance — to avoid anything that might mask a signal.
 
An experiment of this scale is a scientific feat involving 65 researchers at 10 institutions in three countries. It is also a logistical nightmare.
 
“We’re pushing right at the edge of technical capabilities of different scientific techniques,” says Mark Boulay, an experimental particle astrophysicist at Carleton and Queen’s universities and project director for DEAP. “But we’re also building a large construction project.”
 
On top of the behaviour of subatomic particles, Boulay and his DEAP collaborators must contend with Ministry of Labour approvals, missing wrenches, and budgets, budgets, budgets. Someone at SNOLAB must maintain that large supply of dog food. The lab hosts dozens of workers daily, but usually not enough to satisfy the microbes that keep the sewer treatment plant functional. Dog food supplements the microbes’ diet.
 
These prosaic demands can seem jarring in contrast to the lab’s and the experiment’s ambitions. On Thursday, Queen’s University physicist Arthur McDonald will accept a Nobel Prize for his work on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). SNO was the precursor to the expanded SNOLAB, where 10 experiments are now underway in addition to DEAP. Boulay was part of the SNO team; DEAP is the inheritance of the expertise accumulated as a direct result of its success.
 
“Certainly with the facility we have at SNOLAB, and all the expertise we have built up in Canada in particle astrophysics, we are at the leading edge of the field. What we are doing is of that calibre,” says Boulay. “We have excellent potential for discovery and for scientific impact, and we are right around the corner from turning on.”
 
But experimental particle physics is big, high-stakes science. Other ambitious dark matter detectors have found nothing, which is helpful for defining where to look next, but not the result researchers dream about. If theorists’ current best guess for what dark matter is made of is wrong, DEAP won’t find anything either.
 
Then again, if the theorists are right, the world’s best shot at discovering dark matter may be sitting in an ore mine in Sudbury.

 
WIMPs that go bump in the night
 
To get to work every day, SNOLAB scientists and staff perform what is surely one of the world’s strangest commutes.
 
Usually before dawn, they arrive at Creighton Mine, a half-hour drive west of downtown Sudbury. Creighton is an active ore mine owned by Vale (formerly Inco). Vale allows the scientists to piggyback on its existing infrastructure, a critical resource: without it, operating the lab would cost millions more. At Creighton, the scientists and staff suit up in mining gear: coveralls, head lamps, safety belts.
 
They cram shoulder to shoulder with miners in “the cage,” an open-sided elevator. After a rat-a-tat Morse code-like message to the operator below, the cage starts to plummet down the mine shaft. It will descend two kilometres — almost four times the length of the CN tower — so quickly that newbies are advised to chew gum.
 
At the second-deepest stop, the SNOLAB scientists are released into “the drift,” a dark, dust-flecked tunnel. The ambient temperature in the drift is 42 C — ventilation lowers it — and the air pressure is 20 per cent higher than at surface, a combination of effects that can leave a first-timer feeling slightly strange. The ground is muddy and criss-crossed by railcar tracks.
 
After trudging 1.4 kilometres through the drift, the crew arrives at a door and a wall of hoses hammered into the rock: the boot wash station. “Welcome to SNOLAB,” a banner declares. “Your cleanliness journey begins here!” The banner marks a transition in this commute: the switch between the dirty first half and the even more convoluted, clean second half.
 
Why bury a physics lab in an operational ore mine? Because every minute on the Earth’s surface, thousands of super-high-energy particles from outer space bombard your body. This is not a tinfoil-hat conspiracy. It is a basic fact of physics.
 
These “cosmic rays” were great for mid-century scientists, who measured them to discover subatomic particles. They are harmless for the rest of us, part of the background radiation we absorb daily. They are ruinous for a dark matter detector.
 
DEAP relies on picking up incredibly faint interactions — if they are happening at all — between dark matter and the 3.6 tonnes of liquid argon trapped inside an acrylic vessel at its core. Again, physicists have no idea what dark matter is made of. But the most popular candidate is a hypothetical particle known as a WIMP, for weakly interacting massive particle. The SNOLAB scientists are hoping to see a WIMP bump into the nucleus of an argon atom, emitting a pulse of light that the detector can capture.
 
Above ground, cosmic rays would ping the argon incessantly, overwhelming the dark matter interactions scientists are looking for. Burying the lab in a mine underneath 2,070 metres of norite rock substantially reduces this problem: a dozen or fewer particles will make it through the rock every month. But cosmic rays are not the only type of radiation that keeps Boulay up at night, not even close.
 
The potassium in human sweat is slightly radioactive; half a dozen fingerprints would jeopardize the experiment. But the “worst enemy” of detectors is radon, a radioactive gas that is the decay product of uranium and thorium. Radon is found naturally in all kinds of environments, including soil, rock and air. It can reach levels dangerous to human health if it becomes trapped in an enclosed space, like a well-sealed basement. Radon is found in particularly high dosages in mines.
 
You can probably anticipate the irony here. A crucial part of what will make DEAP the most sensitive dark matter detector of its kind is its ultra-clean environment: the scientists’ ability to mute background noise, or unwanted interactions. Burying the lab in an ore mine accomplishes that in part. But burying the lab in an ore mine also makes the risk of exposure to other types of radiation substantially worse.
 
“You can think of the mine down here as sort of the deepest, darkest, most well-sealed basement — the worst place ever for radon,” says Boulay.
 
To reduce contamination from the mine, everything that enters SNOLAB — including the people — follows a strict routine belied by the cheery tone of the boot wash station banner.

 
No detail is ‘trivial’
 
In matching blue onesies and white helmets, the staff of SNOLAB sometimes resembles a diligent Smurf colony.
 
The outfits are part of a stringent cleanliness protocol that begins after entering SNOLAB from the drift, including showering, changing into a laundered set of clothing that never leaves the facility, and donning hairnets and a clean helmet.
 
Everything else that enters SNOLAB is run through a room called the “car wash,” which is exactly what it sounds like. Inside SNOLAB, the walls are covered in four inches of shotcrete and painted with a glossy, easily washable material; sticky, dust-trapping mats lie underfoot.
 
“Every single surface has been cleaned by hand,” says Nigel Smith, SNOLAB’s director. “Every nut and bolt and piece of steel or bracket gets washed and cleaned before it comes into the lab.”
 
If this sounds exacting, it’s nothing compared to the rigour with which the scientists select materials that make up DEAP.
 
“People in our field do some really mad stuff, generally, to find low-background materials,” says Smith. “There’s no point coming all the way down here and shielding your detector and then putting a radioactive component into (it).”
 
The plumbing system that will draw the argon into the acrylic vessel at the detector’s core is made of electro-polished stainless steel, a process that involves submerging the steel in a vat of acid and running an electrical current through it. Electro-polishing removes a thin layer of surface material, making the steel incredibly smooth and easy to clean.
 
The argon itself will be purged of radon through a custom-built, low-radioactivity charcoal filter. Arthur McDonald is leading DEAP’s search for purer forms of argon, and is collaborating with a U.S. group that — for the benefit of obsessive experimental physicists — is hunting for argon from deep underground sources, which contain less of a troublesome isotope produced via interactions with cosmic rays. This ultra-pure argon will be used in later runs of the experiment, boosting the detector’s sensitivity.
 
From experience with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, the team already knew that acrylic is an exceptionally clean material. It is usually used in environments where it needs to be visibly clear: the primary business of one company SNOLAB works with is fabricating massive tanks for aquariums and zoos. The vessel fabricated for DEAP, the team claims, is made of the cleanest acrylic ever manufactured.
 
DEAP collaborators travelled to the facility in Thailand where the acrylic panels were cast to scrutinize the process: mixing a monomer slurry, pouring it into moulds, and letting it cure. Special air filters were installed in the factory, and the transport trucks followed a strict protocol. Afterward, the 11-centimetre-thick panels were shipped to Colorado, where they were heated and bent into five orange-slice-shaped sections and bonded together. The vessel was machined by DEAP collaborators at the University of Alberta and then transported to Creighton, where it was slung below the cage — it was too big to fit inside — and carefully lowered down.
 
That wasn’t enough trouble for the team: Queen’s engineers and scientists spent five years designing and building a resurfacing robot to shave approximately a millimetre of acrylic from the inner surface of the vessel, which may have been contaminated with radon simply from being exposed to air. The robot used diamond sanding pads that were chosen like many other detector materials: by testing a dozen choices in a radon assay system and selecting the one with the lowest levels. After sanding, the interior was flushed with tonne after tonne of ultra-pure water (kind of like tooth polishing, as a DEAP team member suggested).
 
“We are trying to build some of the lowest-radiation environments in the universe,” Smith says. This is what makes DEAP 20 times more sensitive than the next best dark matter detector.
 
These science concerns are always compounded by logistical ones. Boulay’s most frequently used expression is “non-trivial,” and he applies it to many things. Removing the sanding robot from the interior of the acrylic vessel? Non-trivial. It involved installing an extraction canister, which involved operating a lifting device, which involved waiting for an approval, one of the many delays DEAP has experienced (though it is not as far behind schedule as SNO was).
 
“Doing things that haven’t been done before is not trivial,” Boulay says. “We’re doing them at a very large scale, and we’re doing them underground, which complicates things enormously.”
 
“It’s critical because if we drop it, we’re screwed,” Smith said three months earlier, explaining why the entire DEAP team was in meetings on the surface. (He quickly clarified that “critical” technically means lifting something close to the maximum capacity of the hoist.)
 
By the time of the lift, the vessel and its frame weighed 30,000 pounds. It was covered in hardware, including 255 photomultipliers, which collect the light generated by a dark matter event. A team member who laid his hands on it to check a load sensor looked as though he was trying to perform a religious miracle. But after months of meetings and two four-inch-thick binders of plans, the critical lift was a success. The vessel now hangs in an eight-metre-wide tank of ultra-pure water, its final protective shield.
 
The team will spend the next several weeks running calibrations that, when the detector begins to collect data early next year, will help them differentiate between false events and real dark matter detections. Despite the DEAP team’s incredible diligence, the detector will still be drowned in a cacophony of noise: in a single year, it might register a dozen dark matter detections compared to a billion background events.
 
But if Boulay and his collaborators see what they are looking for, it will be the resolution of a tantalizing cosmic mystery.

 
Deep dark secrets
 
Dark matter is just the latest insult to the notion that humans and our tiny blue planet are central to the universe, as Ken Freeman and Geoff McNamara write in their book In Search of Dark Matter.
 
Copernicus showed that the sun, not the Earth, is the centre of our solar system. Galileo discovered that our sun is just one among many in the Milky Way. Edwin Hubble saw that the Milky Way was not the entirety of the universe but one galaxy among many.
 
Now, we know that everything we are made of and everything we can see — visible matter; matter that interacts with the electromagnetic force and therefore reflects, absorbs and emits light — is an insignificant fraction of the mass in the universe, less than 5 per cent.
 
Dark matter accounts for 26 per cent of everything in the universe. The rest is dark energy, an even more mysterious phenomenon.
 
Astronomers first began stumbling against dark matter in the 1930s. Fritz Zwicky, a Swiss-born astronomer working in California, is known today as both an underappreciated genius and an irascible oddball (he reportedly referred to his many academic enemies as “spherical bastards,” because they were bastards viewed from any angle). Zwicky hypothesized the existence of dark matter when he noticed that galaxies in the distant Coma Cluster were spinning far too quickly considering how much they weighed. His unpopularity may have been part of the reason his ideas didn’t gain widespread acceptance before his death in 1974.
 
But Rubin and Ford didn’t observe that. The outer stars were spinning as quickly as the interior stars, and sometimes faster. They concluded that the galaxies must be surrounded by a halo of matter they could not see.
 
Theorists have postulated many candidates for what dark matter might be. But the most widely accepted hypothesis is the WIMP, a particle that interacts with gravity but not light, hence its invisibility to us.
 
Neither WIMPs nor any other particle that could successfully explain dark matter exist in the standard model of particle physics, the theoretical framework that has successfully predicted nearly all the phenomena in the universe.
 
Directly observing a WIMP interaction would not be the first advance in physics “beyond the standard model”: the discovery that neutrinos oscillate, for which Arthur McDonald co-won the Nobel Prize, showed that the standard model cannot be complete.
 
But observing dark matter would open up a new chapter in physics. It would almost certainly earn another Nobel Prize for SNOLAB — or whoever finds it first. Other detectors are running or underway, including one inside a mountain in Italy that has similar sensitivities to DEAP but is scheduled to turn on later and uses xenon. Experiments are ongoing at the Large Hadron Collider and aboard the International Space Station.
 
Asked whether he would be disappointed if DEAP did not detect dark matter, project director Mark Boulay hesitates, then sighs, then laughs. “Having the detector operate as designed would be an accomplishment,” he says. “It’s still a real scientific result, whether or not we see it.”
 
When the Nobel physics prize was announced on Oct. 6, McDonald was predictably deluged with phone calls. In a late afternoon interview with the Star, he was exhausted. But he perked up when the subject turned to DEAP.
 
The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory had given Canada one “eureka” moment, he said, and the DEAP team is hopeful it can provide another one.
 
“The big thing, though,” he added, “is that our students have the idea that they can make a difference in terms of really changing the way we look at things in a fundamental way in physics, and they can do it here in Canada.”

 
Expensive science
 
$65 million Cost of expanding SNO into SNOLAB, completed in 2011
 
$8 million SNOLAB’s annual operating cost
 
$20 million Cost of constructing DEAP, to date
 
10 Number of institutions collaborating on DEAP: in Canada, Carleton University, Queen’s University, TRIUMF, SNOLAB, University of Alberta and Laurentian University; in the U.K., Royal Holloway (University of London), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and University of Sussex; and National Autonomous University of Mexico.
 
SNOLAB construction funding Provided by Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), Ontario Innovation trust, Northern Ontario Heritage Fund, and FedNor.
 
SNOLAB operational funding Provided by Ontario Research Fund’s Research Excellence Program, NSERC, CFI and member institutions. Vale provides in-kind funding. The city of Sudbury has provided a five-year grant for public education.
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SUDBURY, ONT.—In a hot, dark cavern buried two kilometres below the earth’s surface, a pallet of No Name dog food lies covered in dust.

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Michael Gravelle took another pummelling last week over the state of the province’s slumping mining sector, but he was right to point out that metal prices are in a deep trough, even if that explanation is beginning to sound a little lame.
 
Among other things, the veteran Northern Development and Mines minister was taken to task by Auditor-General Bonnie Lysyk for not doing enough to buck-up investment in this province’s mining industry.
 
Ontario’s chamber of commerce has been hammering on this point, too, although the ministry partially responded just before Lysyk’s report came out by pledging to make it easier for prospectors and junior companies to register claims. Instead of physically driving stakes into the ground, they can fire up a computer and access a new electronic grid.
 
According to Lysyk’s report, Ontario is sorely lagging behind other provinces in terms of investment promotion, even though this province remains home to the majority of the country’s mines.
 
But metal prices are the key driver, and they always will be, even when Gravelle gets dumped on.
 
Despite the gloomy forecast for the Ring of Fire, several gold-mining projects continue to advance in other parts of Northwestern Ontario — very likely because gold’s value has remained above US $1,000 per ounce.
 
Earlier this year, a Toronto exploration company began the expensive job of going underground to firm up a potential new gold deposit just north of White River.
 
It’s easy to forget just how close Cliffs Natural Resources came to going forward with its plan to build the first chromite mine in the RoF, about 550 kilometres northeast of Thunder Bay.
 
Cliffs spent a sizable $500 million on pre-development work, while the province, on Gravelle’s watch, agreed to pay half of the cost of a $600-million north-south access road that Cliffs required. (That’s another thing that’s easy to forget when Gravelle is being dumped on.)
 
When metal prices started to fall two years ago, and investors began to notice that many Chinese infrastructure projects fuelling the demand for Canadian minerals had been over-built, Cliffs and other major companies were forced to pull up stakes and downsize.
 
That’s out of Gravelle’s control, despite what his critics might imply. But one thing the province can continue working on in the absence of big players like Cliffs is an RoF access road.
 
It was suggested again last week that this might actually happen, now that a like-minded Liberal government is ensconced in Ottawa. Surely it’s of national concern that Ontario remains the only Canadian Shield province without an all-weather road into its far north.
 
If that changes before Gravelle’s term as mines minister is up, he’ll have really accomplished something.
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Michael Gravelle took another pummelling last week over the state of the province’s slumping mining sector, but he was right to point out that metal prices are in a deep trough, even if that explanation is beginning to sound a little lame.

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Northern Development and Mines Minister Michael Gravelle said Ontario’s new mineral development strategy will tackle all the issues and concerns raised in the provincial auditor general’s report.
A harsh critique of the effectiveness of Ontario’s mines and mineral program by provincial auditor general Bonnie Lysyk was greeted with enthusiasm by the minister of Northern Development and Mines.
 
“I’m not exaggerating when I say I’m grateful for her recommendations,” said Michael Gravelle.
 
Gravelle expressed surprise that Lysyk’s annual report could be viewed as a scathing review of his ministry that appears to have shortfalls in encouraging mining investment, has disengaged in First Nation-industry consultation, shown no evidence of advancing the Ring of Fire, and lacks the resources and technical expertise to oversee mine closure plans and inspect abandoned mines.
 
“It’s funny I just don’t read it that way. I do not interpret it that way. When I look at the recommendations regarding abandoned mines, regarding our closure plans, they are all things that we take very seriously regardless.”
 
Gravelle said all of the issues raised in the report are “total priorities for us, and in that regard her recommendations strengthen our operations, our direction, and our goals. That’s why I’m pleased.”
 
Many of those issues, he said, will be addressed shortly when the government rolls out its new mineral development strategy, last updated in 2006. That could come as early as Dec. 11 when Gravelle attends a Northern Ontario Heritage Fund board meeting in Sudbury, but he refused to confirm that and dropped no hints on the contents of the strategy.
 
“The bottom line is we are more than listening to what the auditor general has to say and are taking it very seriously.”
 
In her report, Lysyk wrote five years after the creation of a 19-member Ring of Fire Secretariat, there is no evidence of a “detailed plan or timeline for developing the region,” noting the government-created entity has constantly missed development milestones established by the province.
 
A Ring of Fire Development Corporation, established in 2014, remains non-operational with a board of directors consisting of five senior bureaucrats that has not engaged industry, First Nation leadership, or the federal government.
 
Gravelle staunchly defended the Secretariat and the development corporation saying he’s “very proud” and “grateful” for their work in building partnerships and overseeing the technical studies on the transportation infrastructure.
 
Gravelle met with Lysyk for an hour prior to the release of the report. While he didn’t agree with all of her findings, he didn’t dispute them.
 
The minister explained the challenges of imposing timelines on a major mineral project when commodity prices are soft, securing exploration financing is difficult, complex socio-economic and resource revenue-sharing negotiations with the Matawa First Nations – the group of communities closest to the Ring of Fire – remain ongoing, and the relationship with the previous federal government “wasn’t the best.”
 
Queen’s Park has been waiting on Ottawa to provide $1 billion in matching provincial dollars to extend infrastructure to the Far North mineral deposits. To date, no construction dollars have been spent on mining infrastructure.
 
Gravelle said he expects to formally meet with new federal natural resources Jim Carr early in 2016 to discuss the Ring of Fire. While he’s “never been more optimistic” about firming up a better working relationship with Ottawa, he offered no date when federal infrastructure dollars are expected.
 
The auditor general also point out that the “lack of clarity” in Ontario’s regulations on the duty to consult with First Nations has stymied mining investment.
 
The report said Ontario has delegated more aspects of the Aboriginal consultation process over to the mining industry than its counterparts in British Columbia, Quebec and Manitoba.
 
Gravelle didn’t provide any indication his ministry will begin to take more of a lead role in managing the process. The Ontario introduced the exploration plans and permits process in 2013, requiring prospectors and junior mining to engage with First Nations at the earliest stage of exploration.
 
“When you look at the successful stories of mining projects moving forward that’s the way they end up being successful,” he said.
 
He denied the ministry has been hands-off in the process, but is “directly engaged on a daily basis on consultations with First Nations,” further adding that he’s personally gotten involved in discussions and negotiations between First Nations and companies.
 
“The point I’ve taken in the past….is that it makes sense from a First Nation point of view and industry point of view for us to encourage them to get together.”
 
Ontario Prospectors Association executive director Garry Clark is all for the province taking back the reins of Aboriginal consultation.
 
“Other provinces are further ahead of us on the consultation pieces. Consultation being driven by the ministry is important, nation to nation, instead of trying to piecemeal it with a bunch of geologists and prospectors.
 
“I think they’ve (government) taken note that this isn’t quite worked as well as they thought it would, and are making some changes.”
 
He hasn’t viewed a final draft of the province’s upcoming mineral strategy, but feels confident his association has “plated out all the issues” to a receptive ministry staff.
 
Ontario’s mining sector comprises almost a quarter of Canada’s total mineral production, valued at almost $11 billion in 2014. But exploration spending has tanked from a high of more than $1 billion in 2011 to $507 million in 2014. The number of active mining claims in 2014 was 235,000 units, a decline from 363,000 units in 2008.
 
The auditor determined the ministry “has not been effective in encouraging timely mineral development in the province.”
 
Clark can’t say for certain that the ministry is to blame when the entire industry is in a global slump.
 
“Our business is so slow right it’s unbelievable.”
 
Some companies have left Ontario, but new ones have arrived to explore the province’s world-class deposits, mentioning gold projects at Borden Lake, expansion at Lake Shore Gold, a slew of mergers in the industry.
 
He said much of the work of the Ring of Fire Secretariat doesn’t the industry as a whole – even though it’s a high-profile project – since exploration is at a standstill, but the Secretariat’s work in transferring training dollars and educating First Nations “to better understand mining is a good thing.”
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A harsh critique of the effectiveness of Ontario’s mines and mineral program by provincial auditor general Bonnie Lysyk was greeted with enthusiasm by the minister of Northern Development and Mines.

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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?
 
"We're very pleased to have our product deployed locally for the first time," said Andrew Morden, the CEO of Corvus Energy, which produces full and hybrid lithium ion battery systems that power large and small vessels.  
 
"We've done the same thing [for ships] that Tesla's done for cars," said Morden. 
 
The company's batteries are currently being used in 35 ships across Northern Europe, and it recently received an investment from Statoil, Norway's largest offshore oil company.
 
Soon, the batteries will also be used in vessels on Canada's West Coast. SeaSpan has signed off for two hybrid cargo ferries, and Morden said BC Ferries is also considering using the technology.
 
Morden said one of the company's hybrid systems results in a 20 per cent reduction in carbon emissions.
 
That's particularly encouraging, he says, given that most large vessels are powered by diesel fuel, which produces more fine particulate matter than gasoline.
 
"In the shipping industry there's certainly been a focus on reducing emissions, because on a global scale it really does matter," said Morden. 

 
More incentives needed for change
 
Robert L. Evans, author of Fueling Our Future: an Introduction to Sustainable Energy, agrees that lithium batteries are a much cleaner energy source.

But he says just creating cleaner technology isn't enough to get industries to start using it. 
 
"The issue is the very high energy density and relatively low cost of fossil fuels," said Evans.
 
"If you don't have a price on carbon, that's where people will go. There needs some sort of incentive to move to something else."
 
Evans says there are only three sources of power in the world: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear. Currently, 80 per cent of the world's power comes from fossil fuels, he says. 
 
Diesel engines in particular are 20 to 30 per cent more efficient than gasoline, says Evans, which is why they're so often used for heavy duty industrial purposes. 
 
But he points to the car industry to show how lithium batteries could gain traction.
 
He says although cars like Tesla are too expensive for the average consumer, others like the Chevrolet Volt have started to use hybrid technology to offer consumers a more affordable and sustainable ride. 
 
Evans also calls attention to B.C.'s carbon tax, which he says has been effective in reducing emissions. 
 
"If you send a strong enough price signal to industry, they will start looking for other alternatives," he said. 
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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?

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The Statue of Justice oversees the Vancouver Law Courts.

VANCOUVER - Seven protesters hurt outside a Guatemalan mine owned by a company registered in British Columbia must file their lawsuit in the Central American country, a judge has ruled.
 
The men launched a civil claim in B.C. Supreme Court against Tahoe Resources Inc. (TSX: THO) after security guards sprayed protesters with rubber bullets outside the Escobal Mine in 2013.
 
The Guatemalan citizens had argued the case should be heard in B.C. because they had no faith that their country's legal system would hold the company accountable.
 
But Tahoe asked the court to decline jurisdiction and stay the lawsuit, and Justice Laura Gerow agreed with the company.
 
"It is apparent that trying this action in British Columbia will result in considerably greater inconvenience and expenses for the parties and dozens of witnesses," she said in a written decision.
 
She noted that translators would be required for all the Spanish-speaking plaintiffs, and evidence and witnesses would have to be transported from Guatemala and Tahoe's U.S. offices.
 
Tahoe is incorporated in B.C. but its headquarters and majority of its staff are in Reno, Nev. It is the parent company to Guatemalan-based Minera San Rafael, which owns the mine.
 
The judge ruled that Guatemala is clearly the more appropriate forum for the suit. She said the country's legal system is "imperfect" but functional.
 
"In my view, the public interest requires that Canadian courts proceed extremely cautiously in finding that a foreign court is incapable of providing justice to its own citizens," the decision said.
 
"To hold otherwise is to ignore the principle of comity and risk that other jurisdictions will treat the Canadian judicial system with similar disregard."
 
A criminal case is already underway in Guatemala against the security manager who allegedly ordered the shooting. The plaintiffs are seeking compensation for their injuries as part of that case.
 
The incident unfolded on April 27, 2013, when guards attempted to disperse protesters gathered outside the silver, gold, lead and zinc mine under construction.
 
Adolfo Garcia claimed a projectile lodged in his spine when he was shot in the back, while Luis Monroy said his sense of smell was destroyed when he was shot in the face.
 
The other plaintiffs, ranging in age from 17 to 40, are farmers and students who claimed projectiles hit them in the legs, knee and foot. They alleged shotguns, pepper spray and buck shot were also used.
 
The suit claimed Tahoe was liable for either authorizing the use of excessive force or negligence for not preventing the violence.
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VANCOUVER - Seven protesters hurt outside a Guatemalan mine owned by a company registered in British Columbia must file their lawsuit in the Central American country, a judge has ruled.

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Employee qualifications, knowledge and experience are the basis for a successful maintenance organization. We offer an extensive series of qualification seminars and user trainings for vibration diagnosis. 
 
• Certified vibration seminars in accordance with ISO Standard 18436-2 (Category I - III)
• Certified user trainings for the VIBGUARD Condition Monitoring System
• Specific user trainings.
 
In the field of industrial maintenance, there is an increasing demand for certified vibration experts. In some industries, a certification is even required by national and international regulations.


Dynamics simulator 1

What effects natural frequency? - See our Dynamics Simulator
Jason Tranter demonstrates the iTeachDynamics simulator. iTeachDynamics demonstrates how mass, stiffness and damping affect natural frequency. Please click the screen to see the video. Please be patient, the video may take a few seconds to load on slower connections.


Click screen to run the simulator 


Dynamics simulator 2

What effects the dynamics of a shaft? - See our Dynamics Simulator
Jason Tranter demonstrates the Shaft (rotor) version of the iTeachResonance simulator. This program demonstrates how mass, stiffness and damping affect the dynamics of a shaft.
 
Please click the screen to see the video. Please be patient, the video may take a few seconds to load on slower connections.


Click screen to run the simulator 
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Employee qualifications, knowledge and experience are the basis for a successful maintenance organization. We offer an extensive series of qualification seminars and user trainings for vibration diagnosis. 

" ["view"]=> int(1862) ["commented"]=> int(0) ["showInSection"]=> int(0) ["showInSectionMain"]=> int(0) ["showOnSuppliersPage"]=> int(0) ["showOnJuniourPage"]=> int(0) ["showOnMiningPage"]=> int(1) ["showOnEventPage"]=> int(0) ["approved"]=> int(1) ["moderate"]=> int(0) ["featured"]=> int(0) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["_viewMoreMostReadLink"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#245 (2) { ["value"]=> string(22) "news_list_article.html" ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["_blockBannerOn"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#183 (2) { ["value"]=> bool(true) ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["_emptyMagazineDisplay"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#218 (2) { ["value"]=> bool(false) ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["promoBannersPage"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#230 (2) { ["value"]=> array(2) { [19]=> array(2) { ["title"]=> string(2) "N2" ["promoPlaceId"]=> int(19) } [18]=> array(2) { ["title"]=> string(2) "N1" ["promoPlaceId"]=> int(18) } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["comments"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#223 (2) { ["value"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(0) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(0) { } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["commentsCount"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#224 (2) { ["value"]=> int(0) ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["displayComments"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#225 (2) { ["value"]=> NULL ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["metaTitle"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#226 (2) { ["value"]=> string(60) "Lithium Battery-Powered Ships Tackle Pollution on West Coast" ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["metaDescription"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#227 (2) { ["value"]=> string(209) "A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?" ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["metaKeywords"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#228 (2) { ["value"]=> string(192) "fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear, Vancouver, Andrew Morden, Corvus Energy, Morden, Northern Europe, Statoil, Norway, Ferries, Robert L. Evans, Fueling Our Future, Sustainable Energy" ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } } ["parent"]=> NULL ["config_vars"]=> array(0) { } ["ext"]=> object(Smarty_Internal_Extension_Handler)#167 (8) { ["objType"]=> int(1) ["_property_info":"Smarty_Internal_Extension_Handler":private]=> array(8) { ["AutoloadFilters"]=> int(0) ["DefaultModifiers"]=> int(0) ["ConfigVars"]=> int(0) ["DebugTemplate"]=> int(0) ["RegisteredObject"]=> int(0) ["StreamVariable"]=> int(0) ["TemplateVars"]=> int(0) ["Literals"]=> string(8) "Literals" } ["resolvedProperties":"Smarty_Internal_Extension_Handler":private]=> array(0) { } ["_codeFrame"]=> object(Smarty_Internal_Runtime_CodeFrame)#186 (0) { } ["getLiterals"]=> object(Smarty_Internal_Method_Literals)#189 (1) { ["objMap"]=> int(3) } ["addLiterals"]=> object(Smarty_Internal_Method_Literals)#189 (1) { ["objMap"]=> int(3) } ["setLiterals"]=> object(Smarty_Internal_Method_Literals)#189 (1) { ["objMap"]=> int(3) } ["loadPlugin"]=> object(Smarty_Internal_Method_LoadPlugin)#266 (1) { ["plugin_files"]=> array(1) { ["plugins_dir"]=> array(2) { ["modifiercompiler.date_format.php"]=> bool(false) ["modifier.date_format.php"]=> string(67) "/home/miningli/sawtech/libs/Smarty/plugins/modifier.date_format.php" } } } } } ["isConfig"]=> bool(false) ["content"]=> NULL ["compiler_class"]=> string(38) "Smarty_Internal_SmartyTemplateCompiler" ["template_lexer_class"]=> string(29) "Smarty_Internal_Templatelexer" ["template_parser_class"]=> string(30) "Smarty_Internal_Templateparser" } ["inheritance"]=> NULL ["template_resource"]=> string(13) "news/view.tpl" ["mustCompile"]=> NULL ["templateId"]=> string(91) "/home/miningli/sawtech/applications/modules/default/views/templates/#file:news/view.tpl###0" ["scope"]=> int(0) ["isRenderingCache"]=> bool(false) ["startRenderCallbacks"]=> array(0) { } ["endRenderCallbacks"]=> array(0) { } ["cache_id"]=> NULL ["compile_id"]=> NULL ["caching"]=> int(0) ["compile_check"]=> int(1) ["cache_lifetime"]=> int(0) ["tplFunctions"]=> array(0) { } ["_cache"]=> array(0) { } ["template_class"]=> string(24) "Smarty_Internal_Template" ["tpl_vars"]=> array(30) { ["SCRIPT_NAME"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#168 (2) { ["value"]=> string(10) "/index.php" ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["rootPath"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#174 (2) { ["value"]=> string(27) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/" ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["baseTitle"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#175 (2) { ["value"]=> NULL ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["arenasMenu"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#217 (2) { ["value"]=> array(2) { [0]=> array(39) { ["arenaId"]=> int(56) ["title"]=> string(13) "Indoor Arena " ["eventId"]=> int(14) ["description"]=> string(16) "

test

" ["pricePerSq"]=> float(13.8) ["arenaType"]=> string(6) "upload" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "s5k2Dshr.jpg" ["imageMobile"]=> string(12) "zJf0so5b.jpg" ["imageMedium"]=> string(12) "40lFdOne.jpg" ["spotIntersection"]=> int(0) ["widthPx"]=> float(700) ["lengthPx"]=> float(906) ["widthFt"]=> float(84) ["lengthFt"]=> float(200) ["paddingTop"]=> int(0) ["paddingRight"]=> int(0) ["paddingBottom"]=> int(0) ["paddingLeft"]=> int(0) ["sampleWidthPx"]=> float(26) ["sampleLengthPx"]=> float(28) ["sampleWidthFt"]=> float(84) ["sampleLengthFt"]=> float(200) ["sampleX"]=> float(134) ["sampleY"]=> float(78.5) ["minWidthPx"]=> float(1.66533279957) ["minLengthPx"]=> float(2.08166599947) ["minWidthFt"]=> float(8) ["minLengthFt"]=> float(10) ["sqFtPerPx"]=> float(4.80384461415) ["pxPerSqFt"]=> float(0.208166599947) ["metaTitle"]=> string(0) "" ["metaKeywords"]=> string(0) "" ["metaDescription"]=> string(0) "" ["expoContent"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaTitle"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaKeywords"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaDescription"]=> string(0) "" ["tsUpdate"]=> string(19) "2018-01-18 12:33:29" ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(39) { ["arenaId"]=> int(57) ["title"]=> string(8) "Outdoors" ["eventId"]=> int(14) ["description"]=> string(16) "

test

" ["pricePerSq"]=> float(2.5) ["arenaType"]=> string(6) "upload" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "fL5jm4Sf.jpg" ["imageMobile"]=> string(12) "YntmVE5M.jpg" ["imageMedium"]=> string(12) "T0jg9Zqm.jpg" ["spotIntersection"]=> int(0) ["widthPx"]=> float(700) ["lengthPx"]=> float(906) ["widthFt"]=> float(1200) ["lengthFt"]=> float(800) ["paddingTop"]=> int(0) ["paddingRight"]=> int(0) ["paddingBottom"]=> int(0) ["paddingLeft"]=> int(0) ["sampleWidthPx"]=> float(700) ["sampleLengthPx"]=> float(740) ["sampleWidthFt"]=> float(800) ["sampleLengthFt"]=> float(1200) ["sampleX"]=> float(0) ["sampleY"]=> float(0) ["minWidthPx"]=> float(7.34563362368) ["minLengthPx"]=> float(7.34563362368) ["minWidthFt"]=> float(10) ["minLengthFt"]=> float(10) ["sqFtPerPx"]=> float(1.36135294956) ["pxPerSqFt"]=> float(0.734563362368) ["metaTitle"]=> string(0) "" ["metaKeywords"]=> string(0) "" ["metaDescription"]=> string(0) "" ["expoContent"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaTitle"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaKeywords"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaDescription"]=> string(0) "" ["tsUpdate"]=> string(19) "2018-01-08 11:52:27" ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["topMessages"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#212 (2) { ["value"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(1) ["total"]=> int(7) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(1) { [0]=> array(4) { ["topMessageId"]=> int(1) ["message"]=> string(31) "RESERVE YOUR BOOTH AND SAVE 20%" ["active"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["expoId"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#198 (2) { ["value"]=> int(14) ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["promoBannerRight"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#191 (2) { ["value"]=> array(1) { ["data"]=> array(6) { [0]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(160) ["title"]=> string(21) "Experience the Forest" ["link"]=> string(46) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/presentations" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "vYB8ue7u.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "I7C2HeUN.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(163) ["title"]=> string(10) "Save Money" ["link"]=> string(37) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/user/promo" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "dNZtAyLn.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "q5iHnC1Y.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(164) ["title"]=> string(15) "Artisan Gallery" ["link"]=> string(60) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/content/url/artisan_gallery" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "EW8M5s5i.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "CBEGVFbQ.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(162) ["title"]=> string(10) "Buy Direct" ["link"]=> string(37) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/user/promo" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "xxhDgAjD.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "Sn4OUOnO.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(166) ["title"]=> string(11) "Career Fair" ["link"]=> string(53) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/content/url/job_fair" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "i7HfBRR5.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "9iZ2sXqr.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(161) ["title"]=> string(5) "Demos" ["link"]=> string(38) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/demos" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "oSLRTme5.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "KlhYdokt.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["pageURL"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#192 (2) { ["value"]=> string(47) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com:443news/view/id/6996" ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["meta"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#193 (2) { ["value"]=> array(4) { ["title"]=> string(24) "Sawtech Log Expo Website" ["description"]=> string(0) "" ["keywords"]=> string(24) "Sawtech Log Expo Website" ["cannonical"]=> string(0) "" } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["isMobile"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#194 (2) { ["value"]=> int(0) ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["header_menu"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#181 (2) { ["value"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(30) ["total"]=> int(6) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(6) { [0]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(74) ["title"]=> string(6) "Agenda" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/2018_agenda" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(0) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(0) { } } } [1]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(1) ["title"]=> string(12) "Visitor Info" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(5) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(5) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(2) ["title"]=> string(14) "About the Show" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "index/showoverview" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(5) ["title"]=> string(10) "Floor Plan" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "area/index/area/56" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(7) ["title"]=> string(23) "Hours/Prices/Directions" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(28) "index/content/url/show_hours" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(9) ["title"]=> string(13) "Accomodations" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(17) "user/accomodation" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(10) ["title"]=> string(3) "FAQ" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(3) "faq" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [2]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(11) ["title"]=> string(16) "ACTIVITIES & FUN" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(11) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(11) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(12) ["title"]=> string(17) "Pancake Breakfast" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(34) "expoactivity/networkingpage/id/269" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(13) ["title"]=> string(11) "Forest Tour" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(35) "expoactivity/techsessionpage/id/272" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(14) ["title"]=> string(15) "Artisan Gallery" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(33) "index/content/url/artisan_gallery" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(15) ["title"]=> string(8) "Job Fair" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(26) "index/content/url/job_fair" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(17) ["title"]=> string(14) "Selling Timber" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(30) "index/content/url/woodlotowner" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(67) ["title"]=> string(11) "Food Trucks" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/food_trucks" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [6]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(68) ["title"]=> string(9) "Breweries" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(27) "index/content/url/breweries" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [7]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(69) ["title"]=> string(13) "FPInnovations" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(31) "index/content/url/fpinnovations" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [8]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(71) ["title"]=> string(19) "Wood & River Tables" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(35) "index/content/url/hagenwood_courses" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [9]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(72) ["title"]=> string(11) "Maple Syrup" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(0) ["url"]=> string(23) "index/content/url/maple" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(10) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [10]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(73) ["title"]=> string(20) "What's Up With Ticks" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(23) "index/content/url/ticks" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(11) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [3]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(36) ["title"]=> string(14) "EXHIBITOR LIST" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "area/exhibitors" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(9) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(9) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(37) ["title"]=> string(3) "All" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "area/exhibitors" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(38) ["title"]=> string(11) "Agriculture" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/1" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(39) ["title"]=> string(19) "Suppliers & Support" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/2" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(40) ["title"]=> string(9) "Education" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/3" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(41) ["title"]=> string(8) "Forestry" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/4" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" 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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?
 
"We're very pleased to have our product deployed locally for the first time," said Andrew Morden, the CEO of Corvus Energy, which produces full and hybrid lithium ion battery systems that power large and small vessels.  
 
"We've done the same thing [for ships] that Tesla's done for cars," said Morden. 
 
The company's batteries are currently being used in 35 ships across Northern Europe, and it recently received an investment from Statoil, Norway's largest offshore oil company.
 
Soon, the batteries will also be used in vessels on Canada's West Coast. SeaSpan has signed off for two hybrid cargo ferries, and Morden said BC Ferries is also considering using the technology.
 
Morden said one of the company's hybrid systems results in a 20 per cent reduction in carbon emissions.
 
That's particularly encouraging, he says, given that most large vessels are powered by diesel fuel, which produces more fine particulate matter than gasoline.
 
"In the shipping industry there's certainly been a focus on reducing emissions, because on a global scale it really does matter," said Morden. 

 
More incentives needed for change
 
Robert L. Evans, author of Fueling Our Future: an Introduction to Sustainable Energy, agrees that lithium batteries are a much cleaner energy source.

But he says just creating cleaner technology isn't enough to get industries to start using it. 
 
"The issue is the very high energy density and relatively low cost of fossil fuels," said Evans.
 
"If you don't have a price on carbon, that's where people will go. There needs some sort of incentive to move to something else."
 
Evans says there are only three sources of power in the world: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear. Currently, 80 per cent of the world's power comes from fossil fuels, he says. 
 
Diesel engines in particular are 20 to 30 per cent more efficient than gasoline, says Evans, which is why they're so often used for heavy duty industrial purposes. 
 
But he points to the car industry to show how lithium batteries could gain traction.
 
He says although cars like Tesla are too expensive for the average consumer, others like the Chevrolet Volt have started to use hybrid technology to offer consumers a more affordable and sustainable ride. 
 
Evans also calls attention to B.C.'s carbon tax, which he says has been effective in reducing emissions. 
 
"If you send a strong enough price signal to industry, they will start looking for other alternatives," he said. 
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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?

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SUDBURY, ONT.—In a hot, dark cavern buried two kilometres below the earth’s surface, a pallet of No Name dog food lies covered in dust.
 
These subterranean passageways have certainly seen stranger sights than bulk dog food. There was the one-of-a-kind sanding robot, for starters. There was the giant acrylic orb, split in two pieces to fit down the mine’s narrow elevator shaft. Over the next four weeks, there will be 3.6 tonnes of liquid argon.
 
Every day, a parade of physicists in coveralls and head lamps rattles down the elevator and tramps through these passages — plus engineers, welders, machinists, grad students, the occasional journalist. Stephen Hawking was here.
 
But to grasp the scale and ambition of what’s happening at SNOLAB, it helps to think about that pallet of dog food.
 
The scientists down here are building a massive experiment, DEAP-3600, designed to capture faint signals from dark matter, one of the greatest unresolved mysteries in physics. Whatever dark matter is, it accounts for the vast majority of the matter in the universe. Physicists have described the ordinary, visible matter we know — galaxies, comets, planets, us — as the froth on top of a deep, dark ocean. But we don’t know what that ocean is made of. Dark matter is invisible: its existence is inferred, never seen.
 
At SNOLAB, scientists want to change that. They are building the world’s most sensitive dark matter detector of its kind, going to painstaking lengths — burying the lab in an ore mine in Sudbury, for instance — to avoid anything that might mask a signal.
 
An experiment of this scale is a scientific feat involving 65 researchers at 10 institutions in three countries. It is also a logistical nightmare.
 
“We’re pushing right at the edge of technical capabilities of different scientific techniques,” says Mark Boulay, an experimental particle astrophysicist at Carleton and Queen’s universities and project director for DEAP. “But we’re also building a large construction project.”
 
On top of the behaviour of subatomic particles, Boulay and his DEAP collaborators must contend with Ministry of Labour approvals, missing wrenches, and budgets, budgets, budgets. Someone at SNOLAB must maintain that large supply of dog food. The lab hosts dozens of workers daily, but usually not enough to satisfy the microbes that keep the sewer treatment plant functional. Dog food supplements the microbes’ diet.
 
These prosaic demands can seem jarring in contrast to the lab’s and the experiment’s ambitions. On Thursday, Queen’s University physicist Arthur McDonald will accept a Nobel Prize for his work on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). SNO was the precursor to the expanded SNOLAB, where 10 experiments are now underway in addition to DEAP. Boulay was part of the SNO team; DEAP is the inheritance of the expertise accumulated as a direct result of its success.
 
“Certainly with the facility we have at SNOLAB, and all the expertise we have built up in Canada in particle astrophysics, we are at the leading edge of the field. What we are doing is of that calibre,” says Boulay. “We have excellent potential for discovery and for scientific impact, and we are right around the corner from turning on.”
 
But experimental particle physics is big, high-stakes science. Other ambitious dark matter detectors have found nothing, which is helpful for defining where to look next, but not the result researchers dream about. If theorists’ current best guess for what dark matter is made of is wrong, DEAP won’t find anything either.
 
Then again, if the theorists are right, the world’s best shot at discovering dark matter may be sitting in an ore mine in Sudbury.

 
WIMPs that go bump in the night
 
To get to work every day, SNOLAB scientists and staff perform what is surely one of the world’s strangest commutes.
 
Usually before dawn, they arrive at Creighton Mine, a half-hour drive west of downtown Sudbury. Creighton is an active ore mine owned by Vale (formerly Inco). Vale allows the scientists to piggyback on its existing infrastructure, a critical resource: without it, operating the lab would cost millions more. At Creighton, the scientists and staff suit up in mining gear: coveralls, head lamps, safety belts.
 
They cram shoulder to shoulder with miners in “the cage,” an open-sided elevator. After a rat-a-tat Morse code-like message to the operator below, the cage starts to plummet down the mine shaft. It will descend two kilometres — almost four times the length of the CN tower — so quickly that newbies are advised to chew gum.
 
At the second-deepest stop, the SNOLAB scientists are released into “the drift,” a dark, dust-flecked tunnel. The ambient temperature in the drift is 42 C — ventilation lowers it — and the air pressure is 20 per cent higher than at surface, a combination of effects that can leave a first-timer feeling slightly strange. The ground is muddy and criss-crossed by railcar tracks.
 
After trudging 1.4 kilometres through the drift, the crew arrives at a door and a wall of hoses hammered into the rock: the boot wash station. “Welcome to SNOLAB,” a banner declares. “Your cleanliness journey begins here!” The banner marks a transition in this commute: the switch between the dirty first half and the even more convoluted, clean second half.
 
Why bury a physics lab in an operational ore mine? Because every minute on the Earth’s surface, thousands of super-high-energy particles from outer space bombard your body. This is not a tinfoil-hat conspiracy. It is a basic fact of physics.
 
These “cosmic rays” were great for mid-century scientists, who measured them to discover subatomic particles. They are harmless for the rest of us, part of the background radiation we absorb daily. They are ruinous for a dark matter detector.
 
DEAP relies on picking up incredibly faint interactions — if they are happening at all — between dark matter and the 3.6 tonnes of liquid argon trapped inside an acrylic vessel at its core. Again, physicists have no idea what dark matter is made of. But the most popular candidate is a hypothetical particle known as a WIMP, for weakly interacting massive particle. The SNOLAB scientists are hoping to see a WIMP bump into the nucleus of an argon atom, emitting a pulse of light that the detector can capture.
 
Above ground, cosmic rays would ping the argon incessantly, overwhelming the dark matter interactions scientists are looking for. Burying the lab in a mine underneath 2,070 metres of norite rock substantially reduces this problem: a dozen or fewer particles will make it through the rock every month. But cosmic rays are not the only type of radiation that keeps Boulay up at night, not even close.
 
The potassium in human sweat is slightly radioactive; half a dozen fingerprints would jeopardize the experiment. But the “worst enemy” of detectors is radon, a radioactive gas that is the decay product of uranium and thorium. Radon is found naturally in all kinds of environments, including soil, rock and air. It can reach levels dangerous to human health if it becomes trapped in an enclosed space, like a well-sealed basement. Radon is found in particularly high dosages in mines.
 
You can probably anticipate the irony here. A crucial part of what will make DEAP the most sensitive dark matter detector of its kind is its ultra-clean environment: the scientists’ ability to mute background noise, or unwanted interactions. Burying the lab in an ore mine accomplishes that in part. But burying the lab in an ore mine also makes the risk of exposure to other types of radiation substantially worse.
 
“You can think of the mine down here as sort of the deepest, darkest, most well-sealed basement — the worst place ever for radon,” says Boulay.
 
To reduce contamination from the mine, everything that enters SNOLAB — including the people — follows a strict routine belied by the cheery tone of the boot wash station banner.

 
No detail is ‘trivial’
 
In matching blue onesies and white helmets, the staff of SNOLAB sometimes resembles a diligent Smurf colony.
 
The outfits are part of a stringent cleanliness protocol that begins after entering SNOLAB from the drift, including showering, changing into a laundered set of clothing that never leaves the facility, and donning hairnets and a clean helmet.
 
Everything else that enters SNOLAB is run through a room called the “car wash,” which is exactly what it sounds like. Inside SNOLAB, the walls are covered in four inches of shotcrete and painted with a glossy, easily washable material; sticky, dust-trapping mats lie underfoot.
 
“Every single surface has been cleaned by hand,” says Nigel Smith, SNOLAB’s director. “Every nut and bolt and piece of steel or bracket gets washed and cleaned before it comes into the lab.”
 
If this sounds exacting, it’s nothing compared to the rigour with which the scientists select materials that make up DEAP.
 
“People in our field do some really mad stuff, generally, to find low-background materials,” says Smith. “There’s no point coming all the way down here and shielding your detector and then putting a radioactive component into (it).”
 
The plumbing system that will draw the argon into the acrylic vessel at the detector’s core is made of electro-polished stainless steel, a process that involves submerging the steel in a vat of acid and running an electrical current through it. Electro-polishing removes a thin layer of surface material, making the steel incredibly smooth and easy to clean.
 
The argon itself will be purged of radon through a custom-built, low-radioactivity charcoal filter. Arthur McDonald is leading DEAP’s search for purer forms of argon, and is collaborating with a U.S. group that — for the benefit of obsessive experimental physicists — is hunting for argon from deep underground sources, which contain less of a troublesome isotope produced via interactions with cosmic rays. This ultra-pure argon will be used in later runs of the experiment, boosting the detector’s sensitivity.
 
From experience with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, the team already knew that acrylic is an exceptionally clean material. It is usually used in environments where it needs to be visibly clear: the primary business of one company SNOLAB works with is fabricating massive tanks for aquariums and zoos. The vessel fabricated for DEAP, the team claims, is made of the cleanest acrylic ever manufactured.
 
DEAP collaborators travelled to the facility in Thailand where the acrylic panels were cast to scrutinize the process: mixing a monomer slurry, pouring it into moulds, and letting it cure. Special air filters were installed in the factory, and the transport trucks followed a strict protocol. Afterward, the 11-centimetre-thick panels were shipped to Colorado, where they were heated and bent into five orange-slice-shaped sections and bonded together. The vessel was machined by DEAP collaborators at the University of Alberta and then transported to Creighton, where it was slung below the cage — it was too big to fit inside — and carefully lowered down.
 
That wasn’t enough trouble for the team: Queen’s engineers and scientists spent five years designing and building a resurfacing robot to shave approximately a millimetre of acrylic from the inner surface of the vessel, which may have been contaminated with radon simply from being exposed to air. The robot used diamond sanding pads that were chosen like many other detector materials: by testing a dozen choices in a radon assay system and selecting the one with the lowest levels. After sanding, the interior was flushed with tonne after tonne of ultra-pure water (kind of like tooth polishing, as a DEAP team member suggested).
 
“We are trying to build some of the lowest-radiation environments in the universe,” Smith says. This is what makes DEAP 20 times more sensitive than the next best dark matter detector.
 
These science concerns are always compounded by logistical ones. Boulay’s most frequently used expression is “non-trivial,” and he applies it to many things. Removing the sanding robot from the interior of the acrylic vessel? Non-trivial. It involved installing an extraction canister, which involved operating a lifting device, which involved waiting for an approval, one of the many delays DEAP has experienced (though it is not as far behind schedule as SNO was).
 
“Doing things that haven’t been done before is not trivial,” Boulay says. “We’re doing them at a very large scale, and we’re doing them underground, which complicates things enormously.”
 
“It’s critical because if we drop it, we’re screwed,” Smith said three months earlier, explaining why the entire DEAP team was in meetings on the surface. (He quickly clarified that “critical” technically means lifting something close to the maximum capacity of the hoist.)
 
By the time of the lift, the vessel and its frame weighed 30,000 pounds. It was covered in hardware, including 255 photomultipliers, which collect the light generated by a dark matter event. A team member who laid his hands on it to check a load sensor looked as though he was trying to perform a religious miracle. But after months of meetings and two four-inch-thick binders of plans, the critical lift was a success. The vessel now hangs in an eight-metre-wide tank of ultra-pure water, its final protective shield.
 
The team will spend the next several weeks running calibrations that, when the detector begins to collect data early next year, will help them differentiate between false events and real dark matter detections. Despite the DEAP team’s incredible diligence, the detector will still be drowned in a cacophony of noise: in a single year, it might register a dozen dark matter detections compared to a billion background events.
 
But if Boulay and his collaborators see what they are looking for, it will be the resolution of a tantalizing cosmic mystery.

 
Deep dark secrets
 
Dark matter is just the latest insult to the notion that humans and our tiny blue planet are central to the universe, as Ken Freeman and Geoff McNamara write in their book In Search of Dark Matter.
 
Copernicus showed that the sun, not the Earth, is the centre of our solar system. Galileo discovered that our sun is just one among many in the Milky Way. Edwin Hubble saw that the Milky Way was not the entirety of the universe but one galaxy among many.
 
Now, we know that everything we are made of and everything we can see — visible matter; matter that interacts with the electromagnetic force and therefore reflects, absorbs and emits light — is an insignificant fraction of the mass in the universe, less than 5 per cent.
 
Dark matter accounts for 26 per cent of everything in the universe. The rest is dark energy, an even more mysterious phenomenon.
 
Astronomers first began stumbling against dark matter in the 1930s. Fritz Zwicky, a Swiss-born astronomer working in California, is known today as both an underappreciated genius and an irascible oddball (he reportedly referred to his many academic enemies as “spherical bastards,” because they were bastards viewed from any angle). Zwicky hypothesized the existence of dark matter when he noticed that galaxies in the distant Coma Cluster were spinning far too quickly considering how much they weighed. His unpopularity may have been part of the reason his ideas didn’t gain widespread acceptance before his death in 1974.
 
But Rubin and Ford didn’t observe that. The outer stars were spinning as quickly as the interior stars, and sometimes faster. They concluded that the galaxies must be surrounded by a halo of matter they could not see.
 
Theorists have postulated many candidates for what dark matter might be. But the most widely accepted hypothesis is the WIMP, a particle that interacts with gravity but not light, hence its invisibility to us.
 
Neither WIMPs nor any other particle that could successfully explain dark matter exist in the standard model of particle physics, the theoretical framework that has successfully predicted nearly all the phenomena in the universe.
 
Directly observing a WIMP interaction would not be the first advance in physics “beyond the standard model”: the discovery that neutrinos oscillate, for which Arthur McDonald co-won the Nobel Prize, showed that the standard model cannot be complete.
 
But observing dark matter would open up a new chapter in physics. It would almost certainly earn another Nobel Prize for SNOLAB — or whoever finds it first. Other detectors are running or underway, including one inside a mountain in Italy that has similar sensitivities to DEAP but is scheduled to turn on later and uses xenon. Experiments are ongoing at the Large Hadron Collider and aboard the International Space Station.
 
Asked whether he would be disappointed if DEAP did not detect dark matter, project director Mark Boulay hesitates, then sighs, then laughs. “Having the detector operate as designed would be an accomplishment,” he says. “It’s still a real scientific result, whether or not we see it.”
 
When the Nobel physics prize was announced on Oct. 6, McDonald was predictably deluged with phone calls. In a late afternoon interview with the Star, he was exhausted. But he perked up when the subject turned to DEAP.
 
The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory had given Canada one “eureka” moment, he said, and the DEAP team is hopeful it can provide another one.
 
“The big thing, though,” he added, “is that our students have the idea that they can make a difference in terms of really changing the way we look at things in a fundamental way in physics, and they can do it here in Canada.”

 
Expensive science
 
$65 million Cost of expanding SNO into SNOLAB, completed in 2011
 
$8 million SNOLAB’s annual operating cost
 
$20 million Cost of constructing DEAP, to date
 
10 Number of institutions collaborating on DEAP: in Canada, Carleton University, Queen’s University, TRIUMF, SNOLAB, University of Alberta and Laurentian University; in the U.K., Royal Holloway (University of London), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and University of Sussex; and National Autonomous University of Mexico.
 
SNOLAB construction funding Provided by Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), Ontario Innovation trust, Northern Ontario Heritage Fund, and FedNor.
 
SNOLAB operational funding Provided by Ontario Research Fund’s Research Excellence Program, NSERC, CFI and member institutions. Vale provides in-kind funding. The city of Sudbury has provided a five-year grant for public education.
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Michael Gravelle took another pummelling last week over the state of the province’s slumping mining sector, but he was right to point out that metal prices are in a deep trough, even if that explanation is beginning to sound a little lame.
 
Among other things, the veteran Northern Development and Mines minister was taken to task by Auditor-General Bonnie Lysyk for not doing enough to buck-up investment in this province’s mining industry.
 
Ontario’s chamber of commerce has been hammering on this point, too, although the ministry partially responded just before Lysyk’s report came out by pledging to make it easier for prospectors and junior companies to register claims. Instead of physically driving stakes into the ground, they can fire up a computer and access a new electronic grid.
 
According to Lysyk’s report, Ontario is sorely lagging behind other provinces in terms of investment promotion, even though this province remains home to the majority of the country’s mines.
 
But metal prices are the key driver, and they always will be, even when Gravelle gets dumped on.
 
Despite the gloomy forecast for the Ring of Fire, several gold-mining projects continue to advance in other parts of Northwestern Ontario — very likely because gold’s value has remained above US $1,000 per ounce.
 
Earlier this year, a Toronto exploration company began the expensive job of going underground to firm up a potential new gold deposit just north of White River.
 
It’s easy to forget just how close Cliffs Natural Resources came to going forward with its plan to build the first chromite mine in the RoF, about 550 kilometres northeast of Thunder Bay.
 
Cliffs spent a sizable $500 million on pre-development work, while the province, on Gravelle’s watch, agreed to pay half of the cost of a $600-million north-south access road that Cliffs required. (That’s another thing that’s easy to forget when Gravelle is being dumped on.)
 
When metal prices started to fall two years ago, and investors began to notice that many Chinese infrastructure projects fuelling the demand for Canadian minerals had been over-built, Cliffs and other major companies were forced to pull up stakes and downsize.
 
That’s out of Gravelle’s control, despite what his critics might imply. But one thing the province can continue working on in the absence of big players like Cliffs is an RoF access road.
 
It was suggested again last week that this might actually happen, now that a like-minded Liberal government is ensconced in Ottawa. Surely it’s of national concern that Ontario remains the only Canadian Shield province without an all-weather road into its far north.
 
If that changes before Gravelle’s term as mines minister is up, he’ll have really accomplished something.
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Michael Gravelle took another pummelling last week over the state of the province’s slumping mining sector, but he was right to point out that metal prices are in a deep trough, even if that explanation is beginning to sound a little lame.

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Northern Development and Mines Minister Michael Gravelle said Ontario’s new mineral development strategy will tackle all the issues and concerns raised in the provincial auditor general’s report.
A harsh critique of the effectiveness of Ontario’s mines and mineral program by provincial auditor general Bonnie Lysyk was greeted with enthusiasm by the minister of Northern Development and Mines.
 
“I’m not exaggerating when I say I’m grateful for her recommendations,” said Michael Gravelle.
 
Gravelle expressed surprise that Lysyk’s annual report could be viewed as a scathing review of his ministry that appears to have shortfalls in encouraging mining investment, has disengaged in First Nation-industry consultation, shown no evidence of advancing the Ring of Fire, and lacks the resources and technical expertise to oversee mine closure plans and inspect abandoned mines.
 
“It’s funny I just don’t read it that way. I do not interpret it that way. When I look at the recommendations regarding abandoned mines, regarding our closure plans, they are all things that we take very seriously regardless.”
 
Gravelle said all of the issues raised in the report are “total priorities for us, and in that regard her recommendations strengthen our operations, our direction, and our goals. That’s why I’m pleased.”
 
Many of those issues, he said, will be addressed shortly when the government rolls out its new mineral development strategy, last updated in 2006. That could come as early as Dec. 11 when Gravelle attends a Northern Ontario Heritage Fund board meeting in Sudbury, but he refused to confirm that and dropped no hints on the contents of the strategy.
 
“The bottom line is we are more than listening to what the auditor general has to say and are taking it very seriously.”
 
In her report, Lysyk wrote five years after the creation of a 19-member Ring of Fire Secretariat, there is no evidence of a “detailed plan or timeline for developing the region,” noting the government-created entity has constantly missed development milestones established by the province.
 
A Ring of Fire Development Corporation, established in 2014, remains non-operational with a board of directors consisting of five senior bureaucrats that has not engaged industry, First Nation leadership, or the federal government.
 
Gravelle staunchly defended the Secretariat and the development corporation saying he’s “very proud” and “grateful” for their work in building partnerships and overseeing the technical studies on the transportation infrastructure.
 
Gravelle met with Lysyk for an hour prior to the release of the report. While he didn’t agree with all of her findings, he didn’t dispute them.
 
The minister explained the challenges of imposing timelines on a major mineral project when commodity prices are soft, securing exploration financing is difficult, complex socio-economic and resource revenue-sharing negotiations with the Matawa First Nations – the group of communities closest to the Ring of Fire – remain ongoing, and the relationship with the previous federal government “wasn’t the best.”
 
Queen’s Park has been waiting on Ottawa to provide $1 billion in matching provincial dollars to extend infrastructure to the Far North mineral deposits. To date, no construction dollars have been spent on mining infrastructure.
 
Gravelle said he expects to formally meet with new federal natural resources Jim Carr early in 2016 to discuss the Ring of Fire. While he’s “never been more optimistic” about firming up a better working relationship with Ottawa, he offered no date when federal infrastructure dollars are expected.
 
The auditor general also point out that the “lack of clarity” in Ontario’s regulations on the duty to consult with First Nations has stymied mining investment.
 
The report said Ontario has delegated more aspects of the Aboriginal consultation process over to the mining industry than its counterparts in British Columbia, Quebec and Manitoba.
 
Gravelle didn’t provide any indication his ministry will begin to take more of a lead role in managing the process. The Ontario introduced the exploration plans and permits process in 2013, requiring prospectors and junior mining to engage with First Nations at the earliest stage of exploration.
 
“When you look at the successful stories of mining projects moving forward that’s the way they end up being successful,” he said.
 
He denied the ministry has been hands-off in the process, but is “directly engaged on a daily basis on consultations with First Nations,” further adding that he’s personally gotten involved in discussions and negotiations between First Nations and companies.
 
“The point I’ve taken in the past….is that it makes sense from a First Nation point of view and industry point of view for us to encourage them to get together.”
 
Ontario Prospectors Association executive director Garry Clark is all for the province taking back the reins of Aboriginal consultation.
 
“Other provinces are further ahead of us on the consultation pieces. Consultation being driven by the ministry is important, nation to nation, instead of trying to piecemeal it with a bunch of geologists and prospectors.
 
“I think they’ve (government) taken note that this isn’t quite worked as well as they thought it would, and are making some changes.”
 
He hasn’t viewed a final draft of the province’s upcoming mineral strategy, but feels confident his association has “plated out all the issues” to a receptive ministry staff.
 
Ontario’s mining sector comprises almost a quarter of Canada’s total mineral production, valued at almost $11 billion in 2014. But exploration spending has tanked from a high of more than $1 billion in 2011 to $507 million in 2014. The number of active mining claims in 2014 was 235,000 units, a decline from 363,000 units in 2008.
 
The auditor determined the ministry “has not been effective in encouraging timely mineral development in the province.”
 
Clark can’t say for certain that the ministry is to blame when the entire industry is in a global slump.
 
“Our business is so slow right it’s unbelievable.”
 
Some companies have left Ontario, but new ones have arrived to explore the province’s world-class deposits, mentioning gold projects at Borden Lake, expansion at Lake Shore Gold, a slew of mergers in the industry.
 
He said much of the work of the Ring of Fire Secretariat doesn’t the industry as a whole – even though it’s a high-profile project – since exploration is at a standstill, but the Secretariat’s work in transferring training dollars and educating First Nations “to better understand mining is a good thing.”
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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?
 
"We're very pleased to have our product deployed locally for the first time," said Andrew Morden, the CEO of Corvus Energy, which produces full and hybrid lithium ion battery systems that power large and small vessels.  
 
"We've done the same thing [for ships] that Tesla's done for cars," said Morden. 
 
The company's batteries are currently being used in 35 ships across Northern Europe, and it recently received an investment from Statoil, Norway's largest offshore oil company.
 
Soon, the batteries will also be used in vessels on Canada's West Coast. SeaSpan has signed off for two hybrid cargo ferries, and Morden said BC Ferries is also considering using the technology.
 
Morden said one of the company's hybrid systems results in a 20 per cent reduction in carbon emissions.
 
That's particularly encouraging, he says, given that most large vessels are powered by diesel fuel, which produces more fine particulate matter than gasoline.
 
"In the shipping industry there's certainly been a focus on reducing emissions, because on a global scale it really does matter," said Morden. 

 
More incentives needed for change
 
Robert L. Evans, author of Fueling Our Future: an Introduction to Sustainable Energy, agrees that lithium batteries are a much cleaner energy source.

But he says just creating cleaner technology isn't enough to get industries to start using it. 
 
"The issue is the very high energy density and relatively low cost of fossil fuels," said Evans.
 
"If you don't have a price on carbon, that's where people will go. There needs some sort of incentive to move to something else."
 
Evans says there are only three sources of power in the world: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear. Currently, 80 per cent of the world's power comes from fossil fuels, he says. 
 
Diesel engines in particular are 20 to 30 per cent more efficient than gasoline, says Evans, which is why they're so often used for heavy duty industrial purposes. 
 
But he points to the car industry to show how lithium batteries could gain traction.
 
He says although cars like Tesla are too expensive for the average consumer, others like the Chevrolet Volt have started to use hybrid technology to offer consumers a more affordable and sustainable ride. 
 
Evans also calls attention to B.C.'s carbon tax, which he says has been effective in reducing emissions. 
 
"If you send a strong enough price signal to industry, they will start looking for other alternatives," he said. 
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The Statue of Justice oversees the Vancouver Law Courts.

VANCOUVER - Seven protesters hurt outside a Guatemalan mine owned by a company registered in British Columbia must file their lawsuit in the Central American country, a judge has ruled.
 
The men launched a civil claim in B.C. Supreme Court against Tahoe Resources Inc. (TSX: THO) after security guards sprayed protesters with rubber bullets outside the Escobal Mine in 2013.
 
The Guatemalan citizens had argued the case should be heard in B.C. because they had no faith that their country's legal system would hold the company accountable.
 
But Tahoe asked the court to decline jurisdiction and stay the lawsuit, and Justice Laura Gerow agreed with the company.
 
"It is apparent that trying this action in British Columbia will result in considerably greater inconvenience and expenses for the parties and dozens of witnesses," she said in a written decision.
 
She noted that translators would be required for all the Spanish-speaking plaintiffs, and evidence and witnesses would have to be transported from Guatemala and Tahoe's U.S. offices.
 
Tahoe is incorporated in B.C. but its headquarters and majority of its staff are in Reno, Nev. It is the parent company to Guatemalan-based Minera San Rafael, which owns the mine.
 
The judge ruled that Guatemala is clearly the more appropriate forum for the suit. She said the country's legal system is "imperfect" but functional.
 
"In my view, the public interest requires that Canadian courts proceed extremely cautiously in finding that a foreign court is incapable of providing justice to its own citizens," the decision said.
 
"To hold otherwise is to ignore the principle of comity and risk that other jurisdictions will treat the Canadian judicial system with similar disregard."
 
A criminal case is already underway in Guatemala against the security manager who allegedly ordered the shooting. The plaintiffs are seeking compensation for their injuries as part of that case.
 
The incident unfolded on April 27, 2013, when guards attempted to disperse protesters gathered outside the silver, gold, lead and zinc mine under construction.
 
Adolfo Garcia claimed a projectile lodged in his spine when he was shot in the back, while Luis Monroy said his sense of smell was destroyed when he was shot in the face.
 
The other plaintiffs, ranging in age from 17 to 40, are farmers and students who claimed projectiles hit them in the legs, knee and foot. They alleged shotguns, pepper spray and buck shot were also used.
 
The suit claimed Tahoe was liable for either authorizing the use of excessive force or negligence for not preventing the violence.
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VANCOUVER - Seven protesters hurt outside a Guatemalan mine owned by a company registered in British Columbia must file their lawsuit in the Central American country, a judge has ruled.

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Employee qualifications, knowledge and experience are the basis for a successful maintenance organization. We offer an extensive series of qualification seminars and user trainings for vibration diagnosis. 
 
• Certified vibration seminars in accordance with ISO Standard 18436-2 (Category I - III)
• Certified user trainings for the VIBGUARD Condition Monitoring System
• Specific user trainings.
 
In the field of industrial maintenance, there is an increasing demand for certified vibration experts. In some industries, a certification is even required by national and international regulations.


Dynamics simulator 1

What effects natural frequency? - See our Dynamics Simulator
Jason Tranter demonstrates the iTeachDynamics simulator. iTeachDynamics demonstrates how mass, stiffness and damping affect natural frequency. Please click the screen to see the video. Please be patient, the video may take a few seconds to load on slower connections.


Click screen to run the simulator 


Dynamics simulator 2

What effects the dynamics of a shaft? - See our Dynamics Simulator
Jason Tranter demonstrates the Shaft (rotor) version of the iTeachResonance simulator. This program demonstrates how mass, stiffness and damping affect the dynamics of a shaft.
 
Please click the screen to see the video. Please be patient, the video may take a few seconds to load on slower connections.


Click screen to run the simulator 
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Employee qualifications, knowledge and experience are the basis for a successful maintenance organization. We offer an extensive series of qualification seminars and user trainings for vibration diagnosis. 

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test

" ["pricePerSq"]=> float(13.8) ["arenaType"]=> string(6) "upload" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "s5k2Dshr.jpg" ["imageMobile"]=> string(12) "zJf0so5b.jpg" ["imageMedium"]=> string(12) "40lFdOne.jpg" ["spotIntersection"]=> int(0) ["widthPx"]=> float(700) ["lengthPx"]=> float(906) ["widthFt"]=> float(84) ["lengthFt"]=> float(200) ["paddingTop"]=> int(0) ["paddingRight"]=> int(0) ["paddingBottom"]=> int(0) ["paddingLeft"]=> int(0) ["sampleWidthPx"]=> float(26) ["sampleLengthPx"]=> float(28) ["sampleWidthFt"]=> float(84) ["sampleLengthFt"]=> float(200) ["sampleX"]=> float(134) ["sampleY"]=> float(78.5) ["minWidthPx"]=> float(1.66533279957) ["minLengthPx"]=> float(2.08166599947) ["minWidthFt"]=> float(8) ["minLengthFt"]=> float(10) ["sqFtPerPx"]=> float(4.80384461415) ["pxPerSqFt"]=> float(0.208166599947) ["metaTitle"]=> string(0) "" ["metaKeywords"]=> string(0) "" ["metaDescription"]=> string(0) "" ["expoContent"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaTitle"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaKeywords"]=> string(0) "" ["expoMetaDescription"]=> string(0) "" ["tsUpdate"]=> string(19) "2018-01-18 12:33:29" ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(39) { ["arenaId"]=> int(57) ["title"]=> string(8) "Outdoors" ["eventId"]=> int(14) ["description"]=> string(16) "

test

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["promoBannerId"]=> int(162) ["title"]=> string(10) "Buy Direct" ["link"]=> string(37) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/user/promo" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "xxhDgAjD.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "Sn4OUOnO.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(161) ["title"]=> string(5) "Demos" ["link"]=> string(38) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/demos" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "oSLRTme5.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "KlhYdokt.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(163) ["title"]=> string(10) "Save Money" ["link"]=> string(37) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/user/promo" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "dNZtAyLn.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "q5iHnC1Y.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(164) ["title"]=> string(15) "Artisan Gallery" ["link"]=> string(60) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/content/url/artisan_gallery" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "EW8M5s5i.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) 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int(0) ["data"]=> array(6) { [0]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(74) ["title"]=> string(6) "Agenda" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/2018_agenda" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(0) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(0) { } } } [1]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(1) ["title"]=> string(12) "Visitor Info" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(5) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(5) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> 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"Lithium Battery-Powered Ships Tackle Pollution on West Coast" ["subTitle"]=> string(0) "" ["author"]=> string(0) "" ["source"]=> string(5) "admin" ["postType"]=> string(4) "news" ["companyId"]=> int(0) ["post"]=> string(3600) "
A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?
 
"We're very pleased to have our product deployed locally for the first time," said Andrew Morden, the CEO of Corvus Energy, which produces full and hybrid lithium ion battery systems that power large and small vessels.  
 
"We've done the same thing [for ships] that Tesla's done for cars," said Morden. 
 
The company's batteries are currently being used in 35 ships across Northern Europe, and it recently received an investment from Statoil, Norway's largest offshore oil company.
 
Soon, the batteries will also be used in vessels on Canada's West Coast. SeaSpan has signed off for two hybrid cargo ferries, and Morden said BC Ferries is also considering using the technology.
 
Morden said one of the company's hybrid systems results in a 20 per cent reduction in carbon emissions.
 
That's particularly encouraging, he says, given that most large vessels are powered by diesel fuel, which produces more fine particulate matter than gasoline.
 
"In the shipping industry there's certainly been a focus on reducing emissions, because on a global scale it really does matter," said Morden. 

 
More incentives needed for change
 
Robert L. Evans, author of Fueling Our Future: an Introduction to Sustainable Energy, agrees that lithium batteries are a much cleaner energy source.

But he says just creating cleaner technology isn't enough to get industries to start using it. 
 
"The issue is the very high energy density and relatively low cost of fossil fuels," said Evans.
 
"If you don't have a price on carbon, that's where people will go. There needs some sort of incentive to move to something else."
 
Evans says there are only three sources of power in the world: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear. Currently, 80 per cent of the world's power comes from fossil fuels, he says. 
 
Diesel engines in particular are 20 to 30 per cent more efficient than gasoline, says Evans, which is why they're so often used for heavy duty industrial purposes. 
 
But he points to the car industry to show how lithium batteries could gain traction.
 
He says although cars like Tesla are too expensive for the average consumer, others like the Chevrolet Volt have started to use hybrid technology to offer consumers a more affordable and sustainable ride. 
 
Evans also calls attention to B.C.'s carbon tax, which he says has been effective in reducing emissions. 
 
"If you send a strong enough price signal to industry, they will start looking for other alternatives," he said. 
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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?

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SUDBURY, ONT.—In a hot, dark cavern buried two kilometres below the earth’s surface, a pallet of No Name dog food lies covered in dust.
 
These subterranean passageways have certainly seen stranger sights than bulk dog food. There was the one-of-a-kind sanding robot, for starters. There was the giant acrylic orb, split in two pieces to fit down the mine’s narrow elevator shaft. Over the next four weeks, there will be 3.6 tonnes of liquid argon.
 
Every day, a parade of physicists in coveralls and head lamps rattles down the elevator and tramps through these passages — plus engineers, welders, machinists, grad students, the occasional journalist. Stephen Hawking was here.
 
But to grasp the scale and ambition of what’s happening at SNOLAB, it helps to think about that pallet of dog food.
 
The scientists down here are building a massive experiment, DEAP-3600, designed to capture faint signals from dark matter, one of the greatest unresolved mysteries in physics. Whatever dark matter is, it accounts for the vast majority of the matter in the universe. Physicists have described the ordinary, visible matter we know — galaxies, comets, planets, us — as the froth on top of a deep, dark ocean. But we don’t know what that ocean is made of. Dark matter is invisible: its existence is inferred, never seen.
 
At SNOLAB, scientists want to change that. They are building the world’s most sensitive dark matter detector of its kind, going to painstaking lengths — burying the lab in an ore mine in Sudbury, for instance — to avoid anything that might mask a signal.
 
An experiment of this scale is a scientific feat involving 65 researchers at 10 institutions in three countries. It is also a logistical nightmare.
 
“We’re pushing right at the edge of technical capabilities of different scientific techniques,” says Mark Boulay, an experimental particle astrophysicist at Carleton and Queen’s universities and project director for DEAP. “But we’re also building a large construction project.”
 
On top of the behaviour of subatomic particles, Boulay and his DEAP collaborators must contend with Ministry of Labour approvals, missing wrenches, and budgets, budgets, budgets. Someone at SNOLAB must maintain that large supply of dog food. The lab hosts dozens of workers daily, but usually not enough to satisfy the microbes that keep the sewer treatment plant functional. Dog food supplements the microbes’ diet.
 
These prosaic demands can seem jarring in contrast to the lab’s and the experiment’s ambitions. On Thursday, Queen’s University physicist Arthur McDonald will accept a Nobel Prize for his work on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). SNO was the precursor to the expanded SNOLAB, where 10 experiments are now underway in addition to DEAP. Boulay was part of the SNO team; DEAP is the inheritance of the expertise accumulated as a direct result of its success.
 
“Certainly with the facility we have at SNOLAB, and all the expertise we have built up in Canada in particle astrophysics, we are at the leading edge of the field. What we are doing is of that calibre,” says Boulay. “We have excellent potential for discovery and for scientific impact, and we are right around the corner from turning on.”
 
But experimental particle physics is big, high-stakes science. Other ambitious dark matter detectors have found nothing, which is helpful for defining where to look next, but not the result researchers dream about. If theorists’ current best guess for what dark matter is made of is wrong, DEAP won’t find anything either.
 
Then again, if the theorists are right, the world’s best shot at discovering dark matter may be sitting in an ore mine in Sudbury.

 
WIMPs that go bump in the night
 
To get to work every day, SNOLAB scientists and staff perform what is surely one of the world’s strangest commutes.
 
Usually before dawn, they arrive at Creighton Mine, a half-hour drive west of downtown Sudbury. Creighton is an active ore mine owned by Vale (formerly Inco). Vale allows the scientists to piggyback on its existing infrastructure, a critical resource: without it, operating the lab would cost millions more. At Creighton, the scientists and staff suit up in mining gear: coveralls, head lamps, safety belts.
 
They cram shoulder to shoulder with miners in “the cage,” an open-sided elevator. After a rat-a-tat Morse code-like message to the operator below, the cage starts to plummet down the mine shaft. It will descend two kilometres — almost four times the length of the CN tower — so quickly that newbies are advised to chew gum.
 
At the second-deepest stop, the SNOLAB scientists are released into “the drift,” a dark, dust-flecked tunnel. The ambient temperature in the drift is 42 C — ventilation lowers it — and the air pressure is 20 per cent higher than at surface, a combination of effects that can leave a first-timer feeling slightly strange. The ground is muddy and criss-crossed by railcar tracks.
 
After trudging 1.4 kilometres through the drift, the crew arrives at a door and a wall of hoses hammered into the rock: the boot wash station. “Welcome to SNOLAB,” a banner declares. “Your cleanliness journey begins here!” The banner marks a transition in this commute: the switch between the dirty first half and the even more convoluted, clean second half.
 
Why bury a physics lab in an operational ore mine? Because every minute on the Earth’s surface, thousands of super-high-energy particles from outer space bombard your body. This is not a tinfoil-hat conspiracy. It is a basic fact of physics.
 
These “cosmic rays” were great for mid-century scientists, who measured them to discover subatomic particles. They are harmless for the rest of us, part of the background radiation we absorb daily. They are ruinous for a dark matter detector.
 
DEAP relies on picking up incredibly faint interactions — if they are happening at all — between dark matter and the 3.6 tonnes of liquid argon trapped inside an acrylic vessel at its core. Again, physicists have no idea what dark matter is made of. But the most popular candidate is a hypothetical particle known as a WIMP, for weakly interacting massive particle. The SNOLAB scientists are hoping to see a WIMP bump into the nucleus of an argon atom, emitting a pulse of light that the detector can capture.
 
Above ground, cosmic rays would ping the argon incessantly, overwhelming the dark matter interactions scientists are looking for. Burying the lab in a mine underneath 2,070 metres of norite rock substantially reduces this problem: a dozen or fewer particles will make it through the rock every month. But cosmic rays are not the only type of radiation that keeps Boulay up at night, not even close.
 
The potassium in human sweat is slightly radioactive; half a dozen fingerprints would jeopardize the experiment. But the “worst enemy” of detectors is radon, a radioactive gas that is the decay product of uranium and thorium. Radon is found naturally in all kinds of environments, including soil, rock and air. It can reach levels dangerous to human health if it becomes trapped in an enclosed space, like a well-sealed basement. Radon is found in particularly high dosages in mines.
 
You can probably anticipate the irony here. A crucial part of what will make DEAP the most sensitive dark matter detector of its kind is its ultra-clean environment: the scientists’ ability to mute background noise, or unwanted interactions. Burying the lab in an ore mine accomplishes that in part. But burying the lab in an ore mine also makes the risk of exposure to other types of radiation substantially worse.
 
“You can think of the mine down here as sort of the deepest, darkest, most well-sealed basement — the worst place ever for radon,” says Boulay.
 
To reduce contamination from the mine, everything that enters SNOLAB — including the people — follows a strict routine belied by the cheery tone of the boot wash station banner.

 
No detail is ‘trivial’
 
In matching blue onesies and white helmets, the staff of SNOLAB sometimes resembles a diligent Smurf colony.
 
The outfits are part of a stringent cleanliness protocol that begins after entering SNOLAB from the drift, including showering, changing into a laundered set of clothing that never leaves the facility, and donning hairnets and a clean helmet.
 
Everything else that enters SNOLAB is run through a room called the “car wash,” which is exactly what it sounds like. Inside SNOLAB, the walls are covered in four inches of shotcrete and painted with a glossy, easily washable material; sticky, dust-trapping mats lie underfoot.
 
“Every single surface has been cleaned by hand,” says Nigel Smith, SNOLAB’s director. “Every nut and bolt and piece of steel or bracket gets washed and cleaned before it comes into the lab.”
 
If this sounds exacting, it’s nothing compared to the rigour with which the scientists select materials that make up DEAP.
 
“People in our field do some really mad stuff, generally, to find low-background materials,” says Smith. “There’s no point coming all the way down here and shielding your detector and then putting a radioactive component into (it).”
 
The plumbing system that will draw the argon into the acrylic vessel at the detector’s core is made of electro-polished stainless steel, a process that involves submerging the steel in a vat of acid and running an electrical current through it. Electro-polishing removes a thin layer of surface material, making the steel incredibly smooth and easy to clean.
 
The argon itself will be purged of radon through a custom-built, low-radioactivity charcoal filter. Arthur McDonald is leading DEAP’s search for purer forms of argon, and is collaborating with a U.S. group that — for the benefit of obsessive experimental physicists — is hunting for argon from deep underground sources, which contain less of a troublesome isotope produced via interactions with cosmic rays. This ultra-pure argon will be used in later runs of the experiment, boosting the detector’s sensitivity.
 
From experience with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, the team already knew that acrylic is an exceptionally clean material. It is usually used in environments where it needs to be visibly clear: the primary business of one company SNOLAB works with is fabricating massive tanks for aquariums and zoos. The vessel fabricated for DEAP, the team claims, is made of the cleanest acrylic ever manufactured.
 
DEAP collaborators travelled to the facility in Thailand where the acrylic panels were cast to scrutinize the process: mixing a monomer slurry, pouring it into moulds, and letting it cure. Special air filters were installed in the factory, and the transport trucks followed a strict protocol. Afterward, the 11-centimetre-thick panels were shipped to Colorado, where they were heated and bent into five orange-slice-shaped sections and bonded together. The vessel was machined by DEAP collaborators at the University of Alberta and then transported to Creighton, where it was slung below the cage — it was too big to fit inside — and carefully lowered down.
 
That wasn’t enough trouble for the team: Queen’s engineers and scientists spent five years designing and building a resurfacing robot to shave approximately a millimetre of acrylic from the inner surface of the vessel, which may have been contaminated with radon simply from being exposed to air. The robot used diamond sanding pads that were chosen like many other detector materials: by testing a dozen choices in a radon assay system and selecting the one with the lowest levels. After sanding, the interior was flushed with tonne after tonne of ultra-pure water (kind of like tooth polishing, as a DEAP team member suggested).
 
“We are trying to build some of the lowest-radiation environments in the universe,” Smith says. This is what makes DEAP 20 times more sensitive than the next best dark matter detector.
 
These science concerns are always compounded by logistical ones. Boulay’s most frequently used expression is “non-trivial,” and he applies it to many things. Removing the sanding robot from the interior of the acrylic vessel? Non-trivial. It involved installing an extraction canister, which involved operating a lifting device, which involved waiting for an approval, one of the many delays DEAP has experienced (though it is not as far behind schedule as SNO was).
 
“Doing things that haven’t been done before is not trivial,” Boulay says. “We’re doing them at a very large scale, and we’re doing them underground, which complicates things enormously.”
 
“It’s critical because if we drop it, we’re screwed,” Smith said three months earlier, explaining why the entire DEAP team was in meetings on the surface. (He quickly clarified that “critical” technically means lifting something close to the maximum capacity of the hoist.)
 
By the time of the lift, the vessel and its frame weighed 30,000 pounds. It was covered in hardware, including 255 photomultipliers, which collect the light generated by a dark matter event. A team member who laid his hands on it to check a load sensor looked as though he was trying to perform a religious miracle. But after months of meetings and two four-inch-thick binders of plans, the critical lift was a success. The vessel now hangs in an eight-metre-wide tank of ultra-pure water, its final protective shield.
 
The team will spend the next several weeks running calibrations that, when the detector begins to collect data early next year, will help them differentiate between false events and real dark matter detections. Despite the DEAP team’s incredible diligence, the detector will still be drowned in a cacophony of noise: in a single year, it might register a dozen dark matter detections compared to a billion background events.
 
But if Boulay and his collaborators see what they are looking for, it will be the resolution of a tantalizing cosmic mystery.

 
Deep dark secrets
 
Dark matter is just the latest insult to the notion that humans and our tiny blue planet are central to the universe, as Ken Freeman and Geoff McNamara write in their book In Search of Dark Matter.
 
Copernicus showed that the sun, not the Earth, is the centre of our solar system. Galileo discovered that our sun is just one among many in the Milky Way. Edwin Hubble saw that the Milky Way was not the entirety of the universe but one galaxy among many.
 
Now, we know that everything we are made of and everything we can see — visible matter; matter that interacts with the electromagnetic force and therefore reflects, absorbs and emits light — is an insignificant fraction of the mass in the universe, less than 5 per cent.
 
Dark matter accounts for 26 per cent of everything in the universe. The rest is dark energy, an even more mysterious phenomenon.
 
Astronomers first began stumbling against dark matter in the 1930s. Fritz Zwicky, a Swiss-born astronomer working in California, is known today as both an underappreciated genius and an irascible oddball (he reportedly referred to his many academic enemies as “spherical bastards,” because they were bastards viewed from any angle). Zwicky hypothesized the existence of dark matter when he noticed that galaxies in the distant Coma Cluster were spinning far too quickly considering how much they weighed. His unpopularity may have been part of the reason his ideas didn’t gain widespread acceptance before his death in 1974.
 
But Rubin and Ford didn’t observe that. The outer stars were spinning as quickly as the interior stars, and sometimes faster. They concluded that the galaxies must be surrounded by a halo of matter they could not see.
 
Theorists have postulated many candidates for what dark matter might be. But the most widely accepted hypothesis is the WIMP, a particle that interacts with gravity but not light, hence its invisibility to us.
 
Neither WIMPs nor any other particle that could successfully explain dark matter exist in the standard model of particle physics, the theoretical framework that has successfully predicted nearly all the phenomena in the universe.
 
Directly observing a WIMP interaction would not be the first advance in physics “beyond the standard model”: the discovery that neutrinos oscillate, for which Arthur McDonald co-won the Nobel Prize, showed that the standard model cannot be complete.
 
But observing dark matter would open up a new chapter in physics. It would almost certainly earn another Nobel Prize for SNOLAB — or whoever finds it first. Other detectors are running or underway, including one inside a mountain in Italy that has similar sensitivities to DEAP but is scheduled to turn on later and uses xenon. Experiments are ongoing at the Large Hadron Collider and aboard the International Space Station.
 
Asked whether he would be disappointed if DEAP did not detect dark matter, project director Mark Boulay hesitates, then sighs, then laughs. “Having the detector operate as designed would be an accomplishment,” he says. “It’s still a real scientific result, whether or not we see it.”
 
When the Nobel physics prize was announced on Oct. 6, McDonald was predictably deluged with phone calls. In a late afternoon interview with the Star, he was exhausted. But he perked up when the subject turned to DEAP.
 
The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory had given Canada one “eureka” moment, he said, and the DEAP team is hopeful it can provide another one.
 
“The big thing, though,” he added, “is that our students have the idea that they can make a difference in terms of really changing the way we look at things in a fundamental way in physics, and they can do it here in Canada.”

 
Expensive science
 
$65 million Cost of expanding SNO into SNOLAB, completed in 2011
 
$8 million SNOLAB’s annual operating cost
 
$20 million Cost of constructing DEAP, to date
 
10 Number of institutions collaborating on DEAP: in Canada, Carleton University, Queen’s University, TRIUMF, SNOLAB, University of Alberta and Laurentian University; in the U.K., Royal Holloway (University of London), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and University of Sussex; and National Autonomous University of Mexico.
 
SNOLAB construction funding Provided by Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), Ontario Innovation trust, Northern Ontario Heritage Fund, and FedNor.
 
SNOLAB operational funding Provided by Ontario Research Fund’s Research Excellence Program, NSERC, CFI and member institutions. Vale provides in-kind funding. The city of Sudbury has provided a five-year grant for public education.
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Michael Gravelle took another pummelling last week over the state of the province’s slumping mining sector, but he was right to point out that metal prices are in a deep trough, even if that explanation is beginning to sound a little lame.
 
Among other things, the veteran Northern Development and Mines minister was taken to task by Auditor-General Bonnie Lysyk for not doing enough to buck-up investment in this province’s mining industry.
 
Ontario’s chamber of commerce has been hammering on this point, too, although the ministry partially responded just before Lysyk’s report came out by pledging to make it easier for prospectors and junior companies to register claims. Instead of physically driving stakes into the ground, they can fire up a computer and access a new electronic grid.
 
According to Lysyk’s report, Ontario is sorely lagging behind other provinces in terms of investment promotion, even though this province remains home to the majority of the country’s mines.
 
But metal prices are the key driver, and they always will be, even when Gravelle gets dumped on.
 
Despite the gloomy forecast for the Ring of Fire, several gold-mining projects continue to advance in other parts of Northwestern Ontario — very likely because gold’s value has remained above US $1,000 per ounce.
 
Earlier this year, a Toronto exploration company began the expensive job of going underground to firm up a potential new gold deposit just north of White River.
 
It’s easy to forget just how close Cliffs Natural Resources came to going forward with its plan to build the first chromite mine in the RoF, about 550 kilometres northeast of Thunder Bay.
 
Cliffs spent a sizable $500 million on pre-development work, while the province, on Gravelle’s watch, agreed to pay half of the cost of a $600-million north-south access road that Cliffs required. (That’s another thing that’s easy to forget when Gravelle is being dumped on.)
 
When metal prices started to fall two years ago, and investors began to notice that many Chinese infrastructure projects fuelling the demand for Canadian minerals had been over-built, Cliffs and other major companies were forced to pull up stakes and downsize.
 
That’s out of Gravelle’s control, despite what his critics might imply. But one thing the province can continue working on in the absence of big players like Cliffs is an RoF access road.
 
It was suggested again last week that this might actually happen, now that a like-minded Liberal government is ensconced in Ottawa. Surely it’s of national concern that Ontario remains the only Canadian Shield province without an all-weather road into its far north.
 
If that changes before Gravelle’s term as mines minister is up, he’ll have really accomplished something.
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Michael Gravelle took another pummelling last week over the state of the province’s slumping mining sector, but he was right to point out that metal prices are in a deep trough, even if that explanation is beginning to sound a little lame.

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Northern Development and Mines Minister Michael Gravelle said Ontario’s new mineral development strategy will tackle all the issues and concerns raised in the provincial auditor general’s report.
A harsh critique of the effectiveness of Ontario’s mines and mineral program by provincial auditor general Bonnie Lysyk was greeted with enthusiasm by the minister of Northern Development and Mines.
 
“I’m not exaggerating when I say I’m grateful for her recommendations,” said Michael Gravelle.
 
Gravelle expressed surprise that Lysyk’s annual report could be viewed as a scathing review of his ministry that appears to have shortfalls in encouraging mining investment, has disengaged in First Nation-industry consultation, shown no evidence of advancing the Ring of Fire, and lacks the resources and technical expertise to oversee mine closure plans and inspect abandoned mines.
 
“It’s funny I just don’t read it that way. I do not interpret it that way. When I look at the recommendations regarding abandoned mines, regarding our closure plans, they are all things that we take very seriously regardless.”
 
Gravelle said all of the issues raised in the report are “total priorities for us, and in that regard her recommendations strengthen our operations, our direction, and our goals. That’s why I’m pleased.”
 
Many of those issues, he said, will be addressed shortly when the government rolls out its new mineral development strategy, last updated in 2006. That could come as early as Dec. 11 when Gravelle attends a Northern Ontario Heritage Fund board meeting in Sudbury, but he refused to confirm that and dropped no hints on the contents of the strategy.
 
“The bottom line is we are more than listening to what the auditor general has to say and are taking it very seriously.”
 
In her report, Lysyk wrote five years after the creation of a 19-member Ring of Fire Secretariat, there is no evidence of a “detailed plan or timeline for developing the region,” noting the government-created entity has constantly missed development milestones established by the province.
 
A Ring of Fire Development Corporation, established in 2014, remains non-operational with a board of directors consisting of five senior bureaucrats that has not engaged industry, First Nation leadership, or the federal government.
 
Gravelle staunchly defended the Secretariat and the development corporation saying he’s “very proud” and “grateful” for their work in building partnerships and overseeing the technical studies on the transportation infrastructure.
 
Gravelle met with Lysyk for an hour prior to the release of the report. While he didn’t agree with all of her findings, he didn’t dispute them.
 
The minister explained the challenges of imposing timelines on a major mineral project when commodity prices are soft, securing exploration financing is difficult, complex socio-economic and resource revenue-sharing negotiations with the Matawa First Nations – the group of communities closest to the Ring of Fire – remain ongoing, and the relationship with the previous federal government “wasn’t the best.”
 
Queen’s Park has been waiting on Ottawa to provide $1 billion in matching provincial dollars to extend infrastructure to the Far North mineral deposits. To date, no construction dollars have been spent on mining infrastructure.
 
Gravelle said he expects to formally meet with new federal natural resources Jim Carr early in 2016 to discuss the Ring of Fire. While he’s “never been more optimistic” about firming up a better working relationship with Ottawa, he offered no date when federal infrastructure dollars are expected.
 
The auditor general also point out that the “lack of clarity” in Ontario’s regulations on the duty to consult with First Nations has stymied mining investment.
 
The report said Ontario has delegated more aspects of the Aboriginal consultation process over to the mining industry than its counterparts in British Columbia, Quebec and Manitoba.
 
Gravelle didn’t provide any indication his ministry will begin to take more of a lead role in managing the process. The Ontario introduced the exploration plans and permits process in 2013, requiring prospectors and junior mining to engage with First Nations at the earliest stage of exploration.
 
“When you look at the successful stories of mining projects moving forward that’s the way they end up being successful,” he said.
 
He denied the ministry has been hands-off in the process, but is “directly engaged on a daily basis on consultations with First Nations,” further adding that he’s personally gotten involved in discussions and negotiations between First Nations and companies.
 
“The point I’ve taken in the past….is that it makes sense from a First Nation point of view and industry point of view for us to encourage them to get together.”
 
Ontario Prospectors Association executive director Garry Clark is all for the province taking back the reins of Aboriginal consultation.
 
“Other provinces are further ahead of us on the consultation pieces. Consultation being driven by the ministry is important, nation to nation, instead of trying to piecemeal it with a bunch of geologists and prospectors.
 
“I think they’ve (government) taken note that this isn’t quite worked as well as they thought it would, and are making some changes.”
 
He hasn’t viewed a final draft of the province’s upcoming mineral strategy, but feels confident his association has “plated out all the issues” to a receptive ministry staff.
 
Ontario’s mining sector comprises almost a quarter of Canada’s total mineral production, valued at almost $11 billion in 2014. But exploration spending has tanked from a high of more than $1 billion in 2011 to $507 million in 2014. The number of active mining claims in 2014 was 235,000 units, a decline from 363,000 units in 2008.
 
The auditor determined the ministry “has not been effective in encouraging timely mineral development in the province.”
 
Clark can’t say for certain that the ministry is to blame when the entire industry is in a global slump.
 
“Our business is so slow right it’s unbelievable.”
 
Some companies have left Ontario, but new ones have arrived to explore the province’s world-class deposits, mentioning gold projects at Borden Lake, expansion at Lake Shore Gold, a slew of mergers in the industry.
 
He said much of the work of the Ring of Fire Secretariat doesn’t the industry as a whole – even though it’s a high-profile project – since exploration is at a standstill, but the Secretariat’s work in transferring training dollars and educating First Nations “to better understand mining is a good thing.”
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A harsh critique of the effectiveness of Ontario’s mines and mineral program by provincial auditor general Bonnie Lysyk was greeted with enthusiasm by the minister of Northern Development and Mines.

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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?
 
"We're very pleased to have our product deployed locally for the first time," said Andrew Morden, the CEO of Corvus Energy, which produces full and hybrid lithium ion battery systems that power large and small vessels.  
 
"We've done the same thing [for ships] that Tesla's done for cars," said Morden. 
 
The company's batteries are currently being used in 35 ships across Northern Europe, and it recently received an investment from Statoil, Norway's largest offshore oil company.
 
Soon, the batteries will also be used in vessels on Canada's West Coast. SeaSpan has signed off for two hybrid cargo ferries, and Morden said BC Ferries is also considering using the technology.
 
Morden said one of the company's hybrid systems results in a 20 per cent reduction in carbon emissions.
 
That's particularly encouraging, he says, given that most large vessels are powered by diesel fuel, which produces more fine particulate matter than gasoline.
 
"In the shipping industry there's certainly been a focus on reducing emissions, because on a global scale it really does matter," said Morden. 

 
More incentives needed for change
 
Robert L. Evans, author of Fueling Our Future: an Introduction to Sustainable Energy, agrees that lithium batteries are a much cleaner energy source.

But he says just creating cleaner technology isn't enough to get industries to start using it. 
 
"The issue is the very high energy density and relatively low cost of fossil fuels," said Evans.
 
"If you don't have a price on carbon, that's where people will go. There needs some sort of incentive to move to something else."
 
Evans says there are only three sources of power in the world: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear. Currently, 80 per cent of the world's power comes from fossil fuels, he says. 
 
Diesel engines in particular are 20 to 30 per cent more efficient than gasoline, says Evans, which is why they're so often used for heavy duty industrial purposes. 
 
But he points to the car industry to show how lithium batteries could gain traction.
 
He says although cars like Tesla are too expensive for the average consumer, others like the Chevrolet Volt have started to use hybrid technology to offer consumers a more affordable and sustainable ride. 
 
Evans also calls attention to B.C.'s carbon tax, which he says has been effective in reducing emissions. 
 
"If you send a strong enough price signal to industry, they will start looking for other alternatives," he said. 
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A Vancouver-based business that works to reduce pollution produced by the shipping industry around the world is bringing the benefits back to Canada. But is that enough to get the industry to use clean energy?

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The Statue of Justice oversees the Vancouver Law Courts.

VANCOUVER - Seven protesters hurt outside a Guatemalan mine owned by a company registered in British Columbia must file their lawsuit in the Central American country, a judge has ruled.
 
The men launched a civil claim in B.C. Supreme Court against Tahoe Resources Inc. (TSX: THO) after security guards sprayed protesters with rubber bullets outside the Escobal Mine in 2013.
 
The Guatemalan citizens had argued the case should be heard in B.C. because they had no faith that their country's legal system would hold the company accountable.
 
But Tahoe asked the court to decline jurisdiction and stay the lawsuit, and Justice Laura Gerow agreed with the company.
 
"It is apparent that trying this action in British Columbia will result in considerably greater inconvenience and expenses for the parties and dozens of witnesses," she said in a written decision.
 
She noted that translators would be required for all the Spanish-speaking plaintiffs, and evidence and witnesses would have to be transported from Guatemala and Tahoe's U.S. offices.
 
Tahoe is incorporated in B.C. but its headquarters and majority of its staff are in Reno, Nev. It is the parent company to Guatemalan-based Minera San Rafael, which owns the mine.
 
The judge ruled that Guatemala is clearly the more appropriate forum for the suit. She said the country's legal system is "imperfect" but functional.
 
"In my view, the public interest requires that Canadian courts proceed extremely cautiously in finding that a foreign court is incapable of providing justice to its own citizens," the decision said.
 
"To hold otherwise is to ignore the principle of comity and risk that other jurisdictions will treat the Canadian judicial system with similar disregard."
 
A criminal case is already underway in Guatemala against the security manager who allegedly ordered the shooting. The plaintiffs are seeking compensation for their injuries as part of that case.
 
The incident unfolded on April 27, 2013, when guards attempted to disperse protesters gathered outside the silver, gold, lead and zinc mine under construction.
 
Adolfo Garcia claimed a projectile lodged in his spine when he was shot in the back, while Luis Monroy said his sense of smell was destroyed when he was shot in the face.
 
The other plaintiffs, ranging in age from 17 to 40, are farmers and students who claimed projectiles hit them in the legs, knee and foot. They alleged shotguns, pepper spray and buck shot were also used.
 
The suit claimed Tahoe was liable for either authorizing the use of excessive force or negligence for not preventing the violence.
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VANCOUVER - Seven protesters hurt outside a Guatemalan mine owned by a company registered in British Columbia must file their lawsuit in the Central American country, a judge has ruled.

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Employee qualifications, knowledge and experience are the basis for a successful maintenance organization. We offer an extensive series of qualification seminars and user trainings for vibration diagnosis. 
 
• Certified vibration seminars in accordance with ISO Standard 18436-2 (Category I - III)
• Certified user trainings for the VIBGUARD Condition Monitoring System
• Specific user trainings.
 
In the field of industrial maintenance, there is an increasing demand for certified vibration experts. In some industries, a certification is even required by national and international regulations.


Dynamics simulator 1

What effects natural frequency? - See our Dynamics Simulator
Jason Tranter demonstrates the iTeachDynamics simulator. iTeachDynamics demonstrates how mass, stiffness and damping affect natural frequency. Please click the screen to see the video. Please be patient, the video may take a few seconds to load on slower connections.


Click screen to run the simulator 


Dynamics simulator 2

What effects the dynamics of a shaft? - See our Dynamics Simulator
Jason Tranter demonstrates the Shaft (rotor) version of the iTeachResonance simulator. This program demonstrates how mass, stiffness and damping affect the dynamics of a shaft.
 
Please click the screen to see the video. Please be patient, the video may take a few seconds to load on slower connections.


Click screen to run the simulator 
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Employee qualifications, knowledge and experience are the basis for a successful maintenance organization. We offer an extensive series of qualification seminars and user trainings for vibration diagnosis. 

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test

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test

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["promoBannerId"]=> int(162) ["title"]=> string(10) "Buy Direct" ["link"]=> string(37) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/user/promo" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "xxhDgAjD.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "Sn4OUOnO.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(161) ["title"]=> string(5) "Demos" ["link"]=> string(38) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/demos" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "oSLRTme5.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "KlhYdokt.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(163) ["title"]=> string(10) "Save Money" ["link"]=> string(37) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/user/promo" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "dNZtAyLn.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "q5iHnC1Y.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(164) ["title"]=> string(15) "Artisan Gallery" ["link"]=> string(60) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/content/url/artisan_gallery" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "EW8M5s5i.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "CBEGVFbQ.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(6) { ["promoBannerId"]=> int(160) ["title"]=> string(21) "Experience the Forest" ["link"]=> string(46) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com/index/presentations" ["imageSmall"]=> string(12) "vYB8ue7u.png" ["imageOriginal"]=> string(12) "I7C2HeUN.png" ["bOrder"]=> int(0) } } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["pageURL"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#288 (2) { ["value"]=> string(47) "https://sawtechlogexpo.com:443news/view/id/6996" ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["meta"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#282 (2) { ["value"]=> array(4) { ["title"]=> string(24) "Sawtech Log Expo Website" ["description"]=> string(0) "" ["keywords"]=> string(24) "Sawtech Log Expo Website" ["cannonical"]=> string(0) "" } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["isMobile"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#281 (2) { ["value"]=> int(0) ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["header_menu"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#294 (2) { ["value"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(30) ["total"]=> int(6) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(6) { [0]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(74) ["title"]=> string(6) "Agenda" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/2018_agenda" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(0) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(0) { } } } [1]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(1) ["title"]=> string(12) "Visitor Info" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(5) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(5) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(2) ["title"]=> string(14) "About the Show" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "index/showoverview" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(5) ["title"]=> string(10) "Floor Plan" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "area/index/area/56" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(7) ["title"]=> string(23) "Hours/Prices/Directions" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(28) "index/content/url/show_hours" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(9) ["title"]=> string(13) "Accomodations" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(17) "user/accomodation" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(10) ["title"]=> string(3) "FAQ" ["parentId"]=> int(1) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(3) "faq" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [2]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(11) ["title"]=> string(16) "ACTIVITIES & FUN" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(11) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(11) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(12) ["title"]=> string(17) "Pancake Breakfast" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(34) "expoactivity/networkingpage/id/269" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(13) ["title"]=> string(11) "Forest Tour" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(35) "expoactivity/techsessionpage/id/272" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(14) ["title"]=> string(15) "Artisan Gallery" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(33) "index/content/url/artisan_gallery" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(15) ["title"]=> string(8) "Job Fair" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(26) "index/content/url/job_fair" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(17) ["title"]=> string(14) "Selling Timber" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(30) "index/content/url/woodlotowner" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(67) ["title"]=> string(11) "Food Trucks" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/food_trucks" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [6]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(68) ["title"]=> string(9) "Breweries" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(27) "index/content/url/breweries" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [7]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(69) ["title"]=> string(13) "FPInnovations" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(31) "index/content/url/fpinnovations" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [8]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(71) ["title"]=> string(19) "Wood & River Tables" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(35) "index/content/url/hagenwood_courses" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [9]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(72) ["title"]=> string(11) "Maple Syrup" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(0) ["url"]=> string(23) "index/content/url/maple" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(10) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [10]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(73) ["title"]=> string(20) "What's Up With Ticks" ["parentId"]=> int(11) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(23) "index/content/url/ticks" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(11) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [3]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(36) ["title"]=> string(14) "EXHIBITOR LIST" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "area/exhibitors" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(9) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(9) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(37) ["title"]=> string(3) "All" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "area/exhibitors" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(38) ["title"]=> string(11) "Agriculture" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/1" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(39) ["title"]=> string(19) "Suppliers & Support" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/2" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(40) ["title"]=> string(9) "Education" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/3" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(41) ["title"]=> string(8) "Forestry" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/4" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(42) ["title"]=> string(10) "Rural Life" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/5" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [6]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(43) ["title"]=> string(29) "Non-Timber Products & BioMass" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/6" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [7]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(44) ["title"]=> string(11) "Value Added" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/7" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [8]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(45) ["title"]=> string(8) "Woodlots" ["parentId"]=> int(36) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(20) "index/community/id/8" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(9) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [4]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(47) ["title"]=> string(15) "WANT TO EXHIBIT" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(7) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(7) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(48) ["title"]=> string(24) "Booth Space Availability" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(56) "https://orderbooth.sawtechlogexpo.com/event/detail/id/14" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(49) ["title"]=> string(19) "Artisan Why Exhibit" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(37) "index/content/url/artisan_why_exhibit" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(50) ["title"]=> string(11) "Why Exhibit" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(29) "index/content/url/why_exhibit" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(3) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [3]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(51) ["title"]=> string(11) "Sponsorship" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(38) "index/content/url/sponsorship_packages" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(4) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [4]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(52) ["title"]=> string(13) "Our Marketing" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(27) "index/content/url/marketing" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(5) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [5]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(53) ["title"]=> string(10) "Prospectus" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(23) "pdf/STLE_Prospectus.pdf" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(6) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [6]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(54) ["title"]=> string(16) "Exhibitor Manual" ["parentId"]=> int(47) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(16) "pdf/STLE_MAN.pdf" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(7) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } } } } [5]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(55) ["title"]=> string(10) "CONTACT US" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(25) "index/content/url/contact" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "header" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(8) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(0) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(0) { } } } } } ["nocache"]=> bool(false) } ["footer_menu"]=> object(Smarty_Variable)#300 (2) { ["value"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(30) ["total"]=> int(5) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(5) { [0]=> array(12) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(20) ["title"]=> string(12) "GENERAL INFO" ["parentId"]=> int(0) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(19) "javascript:void(0);" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(1) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) ["child"]=> array(5) { ["pageLength"]=> int(0) ["total"]=> int(6) ["page"]=> int(1) ["offset"]=> int(0) ["data"]=> array(6) { [0]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(21) ["title"]=> string(4) "HOME" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(1) "/" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(1) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [1]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(22) ["title"]=> string(10) "EXHIBITORS" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(15) "area/exhibitors" ["cssClass"]=> NULL ["cssStyle"]=> NULL ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0) ["orderNumber"]=> int(2) ["deleted"]=> int(0) } [2]=> array(11) { ["menuItemId"]=> int(23) ["title"]=> string(10) "FLOOR PLAN" ["parentId"]=> int(20) ["expoWebsiteId"]=> int(6) ["url"]=> string(18) "area/index/area/47" ["cssClass"]=> string(0) "" ["cssStyle"]=> string(0) "" ["contentType"]=> string(6) "footer" ["undeletable"]=> int(0)